and Historic Literature
Early America. Facsimiles of historic documents
and other history materials.
of the United States and the Several States.
Animated map of the country showing border changes
by year. Very good for graphic depiction.
Almanac. Broken down by type of disaster. Choose
a date on the calendar and get a list of events.
You can also have the calendar highlight dates, on
which a specific type of disaster occurred.
- Chronology of World History. Starts at 2023 BCE and continues to the present. Year-by-year, day-by-day. References given. Also includes some themed sub-chronologies, such as:
De nordiska guda- och hjdltesengerna. Projekt
Runeberg: Nordic literature online.
in History. From the Library of Congress, American
- This Day in History. Annotated list of 'today.' Arranged by year.
Society Web site Images, history, the photographic
process; all aspects of the daguerreotype are covered
of Costume. by Braun & Schneider - c.1861-1880.
Plates and text from this famous book. Plates cover
entire range of history and many nationalities. Also
includes military uniforms.
History in Maps. Great site!
- Money: Compare the Value of a Dollar today with past dollars.
Magazine website. Current issue online, links
to other sources, and various related materials. Also links to Air & Space.
History.org (Independence Hall Association,
Philadelphia). All sorts of materials on U.S. history.
- WWW Virtual Library.
Many subjects; offers bibliographies, links, resources.
- National Archives (United States). The National Archives & Records Administration (NARA)..
- National Archives (United Kingdom).
- The Internet
History Sourcebooks Project (Fordham University) provides
a series of primary sources in a number of fields of history.
It is intended to serve the needs of teachers and students
in college survey courses in modern European history and American
history, as well as in modern Western Civilization and World
Cultures. I have prepared an outline
page that will speed up the process of selecting the
right page for your needs.
Project at Yale Law School. Documents in Law, History and
Diplomacy. Texts of legal and other documents. Key areas: Ancient
and Medieval, 18th-21st Century.
Some topics are given good coverage by scholarly websites. This is an example of one:
Archaeology, Ancient Mysteries, and Related Fields
The Ancient World
Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. A printed atlas, but
the site has some information online. Created by the Classical
Atlas Project, University of North Carolina.
of Cartographic Images illustrating maps from the Ancient Period:
6,200 B.C. to 400 A.D. Images of maps that were carved,
drawn, painted, or otherwise created in the Ancient period.
- Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (UC Berkeley). Wide variety of resources, including maps, texts, and other materials. Some features: Silk Road Atlas, Cultural Atlas Portal.
Ancient Mediterranean. Atlas of the region with links
to all sorts of materials.
Historical and Cultural Atlas Resource. Maps
(some animated) of Europe, Roman and Greek worlds,
Near East, and Eurasian regions. Coverage up to barbarian
migrations in pre-Dark Ages.
of the Ancient World. Maps and information on numismatics
in the Ancient World. Maps have some interactivity. Try them
and see. As general maps showing regions, tribes, etc., these
maps have some value.
- Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
A Virtual Community for Teaching and Learning Classics. Ancient
Greece, Rome, and the Ancient World. Covers history, literature,
- Ancient Scripts.Covers all aspects of ancient writing, including its relation to modern writing systems.
- Weapons and Warfare in the Ancient World. Also covers Biblical warfare.
Alexander the Great
of the Roman Empire. Find good, scholarly online resources
for 54 Roman provinces by clicking within the borders of a specific
province on the map, or by clicking on the name of the province
below the map. Some of my favorite areas to study are highlighted
- About Roma.
- Aegyptus (Egypt). The Roman province, but also links to Egyptian studies.
Roman presence on the British Isles, including Scotland. Includes
links such as the Hadrian's
Wall: World Heritage Site.
- De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families (Jaqueline Long). "DIR is an online encyclopedia on rulers of the Roman empire from Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) to Constantine XI Palaeologus (1449-1453)." Materials are cross-referenced with links. It includes:
- Gallia (France).
Sample sites include: The Geography
of Roman Gaul.
- Germania (western
Air Museum Hechingen-Stein. A Roman Villa dating from the
1th to the 3rd Century A.D.
- Italia (including
Sicilia). Includes links such as: Eamus
VRoma! a virtual tour of Rome, based on a clickable map of
History Timeline. Details under several categories.
- Roman Scotland. Studies on Roman advances into Scotland. ".......and there would be glory, too, in dying – if die we must – here where the world and all created things come to an end." Sections on military campaigns, organizations, and related activities. Infrastructure section is especially interesting and includes diagrams and descriptions (forts, camps, logisitics, roadwork, etc.).
de Rome. City guide for ancient Rome (the city) in the 4th C.
- Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins (Robert W. Cape, Jr., Austin College).
Was Who in Roman Times. Search database of names for information.
- Roman Army page. Collection of data, images, on the Roman military.
Mesoamerica and South America
- Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI). ""Mesoamerica" refers to a geographical area occupied by a variety of ancient cultures that shared religious beliefs, art, architecture, and technology that made them unique in the Americas for three thousand years – from about 1500 B.C. to A.D. 1519 – the time of European contact."--Home page.
- Mayas. Page devoted sepcifically to Maya culture, history, and other aspects, including modern Maya descendants.
Studies (includes Asia and Eastern World)
Medieval Sourcebook. (Fordham University Center for Medieval
Studies). Transcripts of original sources and many resources.
The best place to look for many key books and texts from the
medieval period. They also have "Sourcebooks" for
other periods. View my outline
page for listing.
Sites on the Web. Great links to resources.
- Medieval Studies Internet Resources. Great links to resources.
- The Labyrinth: Resources for Medieval Studies (Georgetown University).
- Speculum Theologiae in Beinecke MS416 (Yale). Interesting method of teaching, from the Medieval period. Diagrams, with translations are an art in themselves.
Beinecke MS 416 is a late thirteenth-century or early fourteenth-century collection of such didactic diagrams from the Cistercian abbey of Kamp in western Germany. Medieval educators gave significant attention to the principles of morality in training their students. Such instruction was closely linked to the cultivation of memory. The individual who came to store edifying texts and moral tenets in his mind was believed to have a solid foundation for future learning, equipped to profitably engage in the loftiest of the human sciences: theology.
The Silk Road
- Silk Road Atlas (Silk Road Seattle, Daniel C. Waugh, University of Washington). More than just the trade routes, this shows maps of the various empires, cities, dynastic holdings, etc. Excellent site.
- International Dunhuang Project (British Library). Silk Road maps based on archaeological expeditions of Sir Aurel Stein. Focus on Tarim Basin and points east.
- Silk Road Routes. GIS/interactive map showing explorer routes and empire expansion.
- Silk Road Project Maps (Miami University).
Language & Literature
Mythology and Legends
- Timeless Myths. Classical, Norse, Celtic, Arthurian. Stories, texts, genealogies, various concepts and data.
Mythology (Sacred Texts). Book online.
Myth: The Ancient Sources. Links.
Mythica. Encyclopedia on mythology, folklore, legends, and religion. More than 17,500 articles. Also includes thematic sections: bestiary, legendary heroes, an image gallery, and genealogical tables of various pantheons and prominent houses.
- Myths and Legends
Myths and Legends
Realm of King Arthur. Studies of the historic and mythic
Mythology, Legends, and Sagas. Also has section on texts.
Ancient Greek and Roman mythology. Descriptions of gods and
goddesses, heroes, and an encyclopedia. Also has a Latin version,
which provides in-text references.
Arthurian Facts and
- Arthuriana (Thomas Green). Legends, historical, and other resources.
- Welsh Texts relating to Arthurian legend (Mary Jones). See also: Links.
Glastonbury & the
Online Visitor's Guide. The village info center. Also
a good starting point.
Tourist Information Centre. Additional information
for the region.
National Trust website. Maps, text, and lots of information.
Tor. Maps, photos, articles and book excerpts, and
Tor website. On history and legends of the region.
and stories of the Tor. Covers the Grail stories, Arthurian
romance, and other similar traditions.
- Glastonbury Tor (Mysterious
Britain). Brief history, description; paranormal stories.
Well (Chalice Well Trust).
Well Unofficial site.
Circles and Megalithic Monuments
The Web sites listed below are mostly
general ones since there are more circles and Megalithic
monuments than space permits. Several more popular or
unique monuments are listed here.
Map. "A resource for finding any stone
circle or stone row in England, Ireland, Scotland
Click on map to go to larger scale map.
Page. Arranged by country. Covers all of
Europe and the British Isles.
Pages. Very good Web site with wide coverage;
links, glossary (with
photo samples), book
Archaeological Trust. Covers both standing
stones and archaeology on the islands.
Stones Official Web site.
Megaliths. Photographs and information.
timeline. Earth Mysteries, Britannia site.
Illustrates various building periods.
- Stonehenge (Timescape).
Facts, legends, relations to Arthurian cycles.
View of Stonehenge. Impressive photograph,
Europe and Russia
- Brittany (France) Stone Circles.
Links specifically to megalithic sites in Bretagne.
(EEs-LANd) figures much in the medieval world.
Megaliths. Web site called "The Dolmen
- Arild Hauge's Runes. Great site with comprehensive list of links. Covers all forms of runes, poems, origins, etc. Links also to font sites. Also in Danish.
- Futhark (Ancient Scripts.com). History, origins, functions, and use.
- Runic Alphabet (Omniglot). Brief history, various systems, descriptions of use.
- Runic Inscriptions. Pictures of runes as used on stone carvings throughout Scandinavia.
- Coron's Sources of Fonts. Rune fonts, Tolkien rune fonts, and other.
- Runes: Alphabets of Mystery. Comprehensive with history, origins, literature and poetry, use, folklore and mystic comments, and lots of links.
- Truetype Fonts (Curtis Clark).
- Arild Hauge"s Runes.extensive Runic site.
- Runic Inscriptions.
- The Sounds of Old English.
- Old English Sounds & Letters.
Related or Not: More Script and Writing Systems
More to be added here. I started with some fun stuff:
Specific Languages & Translation Help
- Hindi Language Links.
- Transliteration. Type in English (Latin) and select the language to trans- to, OR type in that language and select "Latin" to see it in abc characters. Has 16 languages and can display in 5 different computer standards (e.g., ISO-9 or ALA). You can then paste the characters into a text document.
- Translation Dictionary. Select "to" and "from" languages; type in a word; get the translation.
- isiZulu.net. Zulu-English online dictionary. Enter a word and get translation to English. Also, if your entry is not correct, the dictionary will provide variants to find the correct spelling. NOTE: You can also type in an English word, with the reply being the isiZulu term(s).
- Numbering Systems. (Of Languages and Numbers). Counting in 174 Languages. Includes a numeral-to-word calculator for each. Type in numeral and get the word(s) for the number in that language. The language tree can be displayed by several different types (e.g., list, radial list, etc.). From this, you can see where the language fits on the entire family tree.
Everyday Language & Fun Stuff
- I Love You in different languages. How to express your love and affection in many different languages. There are many pages that provide lists; the two selected below provide a good sample, with some variety between them.
- Omniglot page. How to express your love and affection in many different languages.
- Megan's page
- Greetings in More than 1600 Languages (from Jennifer's Language page). The main page has a large list of languages and uses, including:
Odd and Unusual
Places to Visit
Page. Online animations of everything from
moon phases to maps of the Campaigns of Alexander
Quiz. Quizes, games, quotes, "today in history," facts & trivia,
and all sorts of fun ways to learn.
Who page (BBC). Official page for the show. New episodes
listings and much more.
Seasonings Relax and drink some tea... All
sorts of tea-related stuff, gift ideas. Also has
a postcard (sending) section, and coloring book
for kids (download line images of your favorite
tea box). Each page has a quote--many are worth
- Geomancy. All sorts of psychic, spiritual-related items. A nice section covers Labyrinths.
The Journal of the International Association of Xena Studies.
For anything on the television show, the characters,
and related materials. Includes links to Greek and
Roman mythology (a
good reason to visit). OK, so the show is dead, but the universe still goes on.
- The Boy Mechanic Vol. 2 1000 Things for Boys to Do. Chicago: Popular Mechanics Press, 1948. by H.H.Windsor. Interesting ideas and "How To" articles for all sorts of activities, including: science and technology, constructing apparatus, etc. "How to construct devices for winter sports, motion-picture camera, indoor games, reed furniture, electrical novelties, boats, fishing rods, camps and camp appliances, kites and gliders, pushmobiles, roller coaster, ferris wheel and hundreds of other things which delight every boy. With 995 illustrations."
- See also: More unusual places
Names (Etymology, Taxonomy, Naming conventions, etc.)
- Names (Jerry Hill). Lists and texts on names, naming conventions, baby names, names of stars, planets, moons, stage names, pseudonyms, and lots more.
- Online Etymology Dictionary. Over 30,000 words and word roots. This is a map of the wheel-ruts of modern English. Etymologies are not definitions; they're explanations of what our words meant and how they sounded 600 or 2,000 years ago. Well-researched with bibliography. Has a great LINKS page.
- Arabic Star Names (Islamic Crescents' Observation Project). Learn the names of stars, along with their meaning.
- Place Names and Gazetteers. Find the name (and local variants) for any place or geographical feature in the World.
- Behind the Name: the Etymology, Meaning and History of First Names. Comprehensive site; look for first names; includes names from a variety of countries and languages. Also has sections on ethnic/national naming conventions, national laws for naming children, and more. Some interesting related topics are:
- Random Renamer. Generate names from a wide list of languages; great for writers, gamers.
- Anagram Names. List of Over 5,500 anagram names from around the world.
- Name Themes. View lists of names by theme, with links to name meanings (e.g., Names with "canine" meanings, Names associated with Warriors).
- Popularity Lists. See what the most popular names were (by country, by year).
- Find Your Hawaiian Name. Just for fun. Type your name and get the Hawaiian equivalent
- Your Name in Japanese. Similar to the previous link.
Vexillology (Study of Flags)
- Flags of the World (FOTW). Flags of the World (FOTW) is the Internet's largest site devoted to vexillology (the study of flags), with more than 39,000 pages about flags and view more than 74,000 images of flags. This site is the ultimate for flags and coats-of-arms, with histories. Well-designed, beautiful graphics.
of the United States. Site contains history,
descriptions, Federal Code, rules on flying, folding,
etc. Very good site. See: Table of Contents.
- Flags and Guidons (U.S. Army). Has official documents and details on the U.S. flag and how to display it. Most links pertain to military use, but the official U.S. Flag Manual is here too. How to Display the U.S. Flag (illustrated page); Display Ettiquette (text).
- Historical Flags of Our Ancestors (North American Vexillological Association). Flags relating to North America, but this includes flags from around the World. Index offers variety of subject points (by people /country of origin, historical period, topics, etc.) and has great links to excellent websites on flags.. Sampling list includes:
- Flag Wizard. Identify flags by searching visual elements (e.g., diagonal line).
- Flag Detective. Similar approach. Good images of flags may be downloaded.
- Flags of the Empire. Great Britain and its empire. See original flags, reproduced designs, and more.
a pet to adopt can be trying at times. Here is a site that
can make your life better while giving a worthy
animal a new and loving home).
Find the pet of your dreams, or just make an animal's
dreams come true! Search for a prospective pet by type (e.g.,
cat, dog, horse, pig, etc.), breed (Siamese, Samoyed, etc.),
Age, Sex, Size, and location in the country. Also read articles
in the resource library on caring for pets and other topics,
find local rescue shelters, volunteer to help animals in need,
and many more things. You
can even leave a message about the exact animal that you want,
and then when someone else has an animal, they can contact you.
Local Pet Shelters/Foster Homes
- Nature Guides. Predominantly birds and bird identification guides; animals starting to migrate in.
- American Zoo
and Aquarium Association (AZA). A nonprofit organization
dedicated to the
advancement of zoos and aquariums in the areas of conservation,
education, science, and
Creek Wildlife Center (East Aurora,
NY). A non-profit, volunteer-led & staffed
organization in the Western New York
region providing: Treatment, rehabilitation,
and release of injured wildlife, Environmental
education programs, Breeding and release
of species suffering from negative environmental
influences, and Training classes/Internships
for college credit and presentation of
- Accessiblity, ADA & Web Design. The Americans With Disabilities Act and how to make your website accessible and interesting at the same time.
of Internet Terms. All terms, both technical and popular.
Of JavaTM Technology-Related Terms.
- Color Hexa: Color encyclopedia: Information and conversion. The most complete color description system for any color work. "...type any color values (view full list here) in the search field and ColorHexa will offer a detailed description and automatically convert it to its equivalent value in Hexadecimal, Binary, RGB, CMYK, HSL, HSV, CIE-Lab, Hunter-Lab, CIE-Luv, CIE-LCH, XYZ and xyY. ColorHexa will also generate matching color schemes such as complementary, split complementary, analogous, triadic, tetradic and monochromatic colors. So you will be able to know what colors best suit with the one you chose. It is also possible to blend colors together or create a gradient between them (see examples below)."
Colors. Chart and code information.
HTML True Color Chart.
All 216 web safe hexadecimal HTML color codes arranged
by hue in a one-screen color wheel. Also has Decimal RGB.
and Web Scripting (W3School.com). Instructional/tutorial
pages loaded with information.
- Language Guide. Computer programming languages explained.
Geography and Travel
World Factbook. Country information, travel
notices, and other helpful data. (See also: CIA Publications page).
- Map Directions. Find
a place and create a custom map of directions. A number of sites
do this (clicking here takes you up to Ready Reference section
- Geography and Map Resources Guide. Complete guide to all aspects, including GIS, GPS, map tools, glossaries, map collections, and more.
- Icelandic. Island (EEs-LANd).
Has both travel and scholarly resources and links.
de France. Photographs of French places and sites. Clickable
map index. Also links to tourism sites.