Massacres -- Links to Resources

Page undergoing extensive updates (from Dec. 2009+

A slowly-evolving compilation of websites and resources. These sites contain a variety of data, images, and levels of discomfort, which is what they should do. I have not yet evaluated all sites for accuracy, nor for truthfullness and objectivity, but part of the research I am doing will result in objective annotation to this list as I continue my work. Initial reactions are noted where made.

No attempt at comprehensive coverage is planned for this page (I don't have that much time). Also, links come and go so some of these below won't work anymore.

I have more three-thousand named massacres that I have identified and have to work my way through. Not all have internet resources, and not all can be verified. I will add those that are located through research that have extensive or singular collections on an event. Sites that appear here are ones that I am examining for inclusion into a bibliographic work. Sites will appear and later be removed depending on what I am working on for the main project. This page is really one of my scratchpads for research but I hope that you find it helpful for your studies while I am doing mine.

imagePlease note that this list is evolving as I work my way through dozens of countries, cities, events. I am not ignoring any events or creating a bias for/against any group. If you have information on a massacre or a website url, send it to me and let me see what you have found. Omission from this page is not intentional. This page is only a part of the entire study that I am making.

Events are roughly-grouped by Continent: Country: Place: Group. It is here to assist me in finding relevant links and data for my research, and therefore is not comprehensive. It is not aesthetically pleasing beyond the basic things I did, but then massacres are not pleasing (especially to those involved), so you are warned. Some of these sites are unpleasant. That is also as it should be. Be more tolerant and accepting of your fellow World citizens, and consider their views. Nothing should be so bad that we should be killing one another over it.

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General Americas New Links to Sort
Africa North America
Asia Middle East US Canada & Greenland Mexico
China Japan Korea
Australia & Pacific Central America
Europe South America
Russia Animals News to Check
World Trade Center/Pentagon Attacks. September 11, 2001
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General

See also links under specific continents/countries

Human Rights and Related Documents/Links/Reference Materials

News to Check

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Africa

Burundi

Nigeria

Rwanda

Sierra Leone

South Africa

  • The Great Trek. By morning, more than 500 dead trekkers were discovered including 56 women and 185 children. Two survivors had 16 and 23 spear wounds respectively. The remaining wagons were summarily pulled back over the river and arranged in a laager. For the Zulus, the night had been a success for they returned with more than 25,000 head of cattle although they could easily have wiped out all the camps. Dingane was under the impression that the only encampment was that of Retief. Retaliatory raids and massacres followed. Some are described in this Web document. (The following entry provides more details).
  • Bloukrans Massacre. After the murder of Piet Retief, Dingane, the Zulu king, gave orders that his impis must set out immediately to attack all Voortrekker parties in Natal and put them to death. Three Zulu regiments were selected for this task, the force consisting of 10 000 fully armed Zulu warriors (fortunately the Tugela River was in full flood and this screened Natal from a possible Zulu invasion). The Zulus marched rapidly over a wide frontage, but moved silently and well concealed. Little did the trekkers expect such an invasion as they had all heard, and believed, that the Zulu king was friendly towards them.
  • In the early hours of the morning of February 17th, 1838, the Zulus struck, catching the laagers completely unawares. The first laagers to be attacked were Liebenbergs at Moordspruit, then the Wynand Bezuidenhouts, and simultaneously the Rossouws' were attacked. All along Moordspruit and Bushmans River whole families were killed. The trekkers who received no warning of the Zulus were those along the Moordspruit and Bloukrans Rivers. Therese Viglione, wife of an Italian trader, mounted her horse and rode to as many laagers as possible warning them of the Zulu attacks.

    Above annotations from now-defunct websites (from SA tourism, and other sites).

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Asia

Afghanistan

China

  • Human Rights in China
  • The Rape of Nanking: An Undeniable History in Photographs. Book, and online exhibit. The Rape of Nanking: An Undeniable History in Photographs tells the story in words and more than 400 photographs of the Japanese invasion of China and the sacking of its capital city, Nanking, in 1937-38. Between December 1937 and March 1938 at least 369,366 Chinese civilians and prisoners of war were slaughtered by the invading troops. An estimated 80,000 women and girls were raped; many of them were then mutilated or murdered. Thousands of victims were beheaded, burned, bayoneted, buried alive, or disemboweled. To this day the Japanese government has refused to apologize for these and other World War II atrocities, and a significant sector of Japanese society denies that they took place at all.
  • The Rape of Nanking by James Yin and Shi Young, with foreword by the Most Rev. Desmond M. Tutu and preface by Prof. Ying-shih Yü, is published with parallel English and Chinese text by Innovative Publishing Group of Chicago. 328 + xv pp. $60. ISBN 0-9632231-5-1. Copyright © 1996, 1997 by Innovative Publishing Group, Inc.

India

Iraq

Korean War

Sri Lanka

Tibet

Vietnam

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Australia and the Pacific

Indonesia

  • DEFENSE AIDE TO NEW INDONESIAN LEADER RESPONSIBLE FOR 1991 EAST TIMOR MASSACRE Former General, Commander of Forces that Killed 271, Evades $14 Million Judgment From U.S. Court In Lawsuit By Victim's Family. Also has more on Indonesia. Search here for massacre.

  • DILI, East Timor, April 7 1999(AFP) - Nobel peace laureate Bishop Carlos Ximenes Belo accused Indonesian-backed militia on Wednesday of massacring more than 25 people in East Timor outside a church. Belo was speaking at a press conference with Father Rafael Dos Santos who described how refugees sheltering in his church and home at Liquisa, 30 kilometers (20 miles) west of the Timorese capital Dili, were hacked down with machetes.

  • Memali, the massacred village, revisited By Abd Rahman in Kampung Memali About a decade ago, people in Malaysia had little choice but to rely on the tightly-controlled government media. There was no Internet, nor Harakah, the popular bilingual tabloid published by the opposition Parti Islam SeMalaysia (PAS). On November 21, 1985, news splashed across the UMNO-owned newspapers that 14 'criminals' had died in clashes with the police. No one bothered to ask who the criminals were. No one really knew what had happened. Only Kampung Memali, a small village in the northern state of Kedah, bears witness to that shameful crime in contemporary Malaysian history.

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Europe

World War II in Europre

Bulgaria (under Turkish rule)

France

Great Britain: England

  • Peterloo Massacre, 1819. Good history, biographies of various parties involved, and list of deaths. Also has eye-witness reports, newspaper articles, and other documents and resources.

Macedonia & Macedonians

Russia and the Soviet Union

Scotland

  • Massacre of Glencoe. (ElectricScotland.com) The infamous massacre of the Macdonalds by the Campbells. This account gives you the historical background that led up to the massacre as well as details of the massacre and the repercussions as a result of it. Map of modern location.

Turkey

Bulgaria (under Turkish rule)

Armenians

Assyrians

Yugoslavia (and later separate states)

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Middle East

General

Assyrians

Israel and the Palestine Region

  • Zionist massacres against Palestinians
  • Bombing of King David Hotel (July 22, 1946) The King David Hotel explosion took place on July 22, 1946 and resulted in the deaths of 92 Britons, Arabs and Jews, and in the wounding of 58 others. This bombing was not just an act of “Jewish extremists,” but a premeditated massacre conducted by the Irgun in agreement with the highest Jewish political authorities in Palestine-- the Jewish Agency and its head David-Ben-Gurion.
  • Deir Yassin (April 9, 1948) Zionist massacre at the village of Deir Yassin. Many have described this horrible massacre as being one of the most significant events of the 20th-century in Palestinian and Israeli history as it was the beginning of a clearly calculated depopulation of over 400 Arab villages and cities which witnessed the expulsion of 750,000 Palestinian inhabitants to make room for survivors of the Holocaust and other Jews from the rest of the world.
  • Kafr Qasem Massacre (October 29, 1956) On October 29, 1956 , the day on which Israel launched its assault on Egypt , units of Israel Frontier guards started at 4:00 PM what they called a tour of the Triangle Villages. They told the Mukhtars (Aldermen) of those villages that the curfew from that day onwards was to start from 5:00 PM instead of the usual 6:00 PM, and that the inhabitants are requested to stay home. The Mukhtar (Alderman) protested that there were about 400 villagers working outside the village and there was not enough time to inform them of the new times. An officer assured him that they will be taken care of.

    Meanwhile, the officers positioned themselves at the village entrance. At about 4.55 PM, unaware of the ambush awaiting them, the innocent farmers started flocking in after a hard day of work. The Israeli soldiers started stepping out of their military trucks and ordered the villagers to line up. Then the officer in charge screamed "REAP THEM," and the soldiers riddled the bodies of the Palestinian villagers with bullets in cold blood. With the massacre practically over, the soldiers moved around finishing off whoever still had a pulse in him.

    The government of Israel took great pains to hide the truth, but after the investigation was concluded, Ben Gurion, the Israeli Prime Minister, announced that some people in the Triangle had been injured by the frontier guards. The press also was part of the conspiracy to cover up the incident. The Hebrew press wrote about a "mistake?" and a "misfortune" , when it mentioned the victims, and it was difficult to tell whom it meant. More absurd than the trial of accomplices was their light sentences. The court found Major Meilinki and Lt. Daham guilty of killing 43 people and sentenced the former to 17 years and the latter to 15 years. What was remarkable about the Israeli official attitude was that various authorities competed to lighten the killer's sentences. Finally, the committee for the release of prisoners ordered the remission of a third of the prison sentence of all those who were convicted. In September 1960, Daham was appointed in the municipality of the city of Ramle as officer for the Arab Affairs.
  • Sabra & Shatila (September 15-18,1982) THE SABRA AND SHATILA MASSACRE took place on 15-18 September 1982, after the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon Phalangist puppets of the Israelis massacred over 3000 Palestinian men, women and children under the watchful eyes of the Israeli army. A body count by the International committee of the Red Cross revealed 2750 dead, the real figure is thought to be much higher and may never be known.
  • Qana (April 18, 1996) On April 18, 1996, 155 mm Israeli shells donated by the US were dropped on Lebanese men, women, and children taking refuge in a UN peace-keeping compound in Qana, southern Lebanon, to escape Israeli air, sea, and land bombardment of their towns and villages, and as a result, the bodies of 102 Arab civilians were shattered to pieces. Without a doubt, the name "Qana", like those of "Sabra and Chatilla" and "Deir Yassein", will go down in history as among Israel's most brutal and outrageous acts.
  • Hebron Massacre (February 25, 1994) (Ibrahimi Mosque = Temple of Abraham)
  • List of Israeli Massacres with text.
  • List of Israeli Massacres
  • See also: Various articles regarding Zionist injustices against Palestinians
  • Photographs and Videos of Israeli tortures and killing of Palestinians. Very graphic. Includes recent events, and also images/video of the April 18, 1996 Qana Massacre (Lebanon).
  • Palestine: Destroyed Villages (1948). List and brief descriptions.

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North America

United States

Indiana

Kentucky

Massachusetts

Montana

  • Marias Massacre. January 23rd, fell on a Sunday back in 1870. At first light, in numbing cold, 200 dismounted U.S. cavalrymen lay spread out in ambush positions along snowy bluffs overlooking the Marias River in Montana and the large winter campsite of the Piegan leader Heavy Runner. The camp was surrounded, its warriors were away hunting, and the edgy troopers awaited the command to fire. Then the old chief came out of his lodge and walked toward the bluffs, waving a safe-conduct paper. An Army scout, Joe Kipp, shouted that this was the wrong camp; he was threatened into silence. Another scout, Joe Cobell, fired the first shot, dropping Heavy Runner in his tracks. What followed, according to Lt. Gus Doane who commanded F Company in the attack, was "the greatest slaughter of Indians ever made by U.S. troops."
  • Washita: Genocide on the Great Plains © by James Horsley. Provides some background and related materials to Indian Wars of the late 19th century.

North Carolina

Pennsylvania

Utah

  • Mountain Meadows Massacre 120 California-bound pioneers massacred by a Mormon militia and American Indian allies in 1857. Comprehensive site.
  • Reburying the Evidence (from Archaeology) "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints made a distressing discovery while restoring a monument to the victims of the 1857 Mountain Meadows Massacre in southwest Utah: the bones of at least 29 of the 120 pioneer men, women, and children killed in the bloodbath. Ground-penetrating radar revealed three other anomalies, perhaps graves, not threatened by the restoration work. The Church, at the request of descendant families, did not allow the testing of those sites or any further excavation of the site in question."

Virginia

Washington (State)

  • Dungeness Massacre. A large arm of Dungeness Spit, pointing in toward the mainland is called Graveyard Spit. The name is derived from the Dungeness massacre that occurred in the fall of 1868. A small band of 18 Tsinshian Indians (a Vancouver Island tribe) were camped on the broad arm of the spit. One night a band of 26 S'Klallam Indians orchestrated a surprise attack and killed all but one of them. The lone survivor, a pregnant woman, was sheltered by the keeper of the lighthouse.

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Central America

General

El Salvador

  • El Mozote -- In December 1981, the inhabitants of a small Salvadoran hamlet were systematically exterminated by the Atacatl Battalion, a U.S.-trained counterinsurgency force. The Reagan administration, determined to preserve U.S. support for El Salvador's war against leftist guerrillas, downplayed reports of this massacre. The White House ignored and deflected reports that hundreds of unarmed women, children and men were shot, hung or beheaded. Today, the truth is known beyond any doubt. Fifteen years after one of the worst massacres in Latin American history, Dossier reports on the incident at El Mozote. (c) Copyright 1996 ParaScope, Inc.
  • Documents. Includes the following:
    • UN Truth Commission Reports on El Mozote. This file contains the text of the United Nations Truth Commission's chapter on the massacres at El Mozote and surrounding villages. The Truth Commission's report is widely viewed as the most definitive account of the human rights abuses that occurred during El Salvador's civil war. In this excerpt, the commission describes how hundreds of men, women and children were "deliberately and systematically executed" by the U.S.-trained Atlacatl Battalion.
    • Forensic Investigation of El Mozote. This 1992 report describes the findings of a group of international forensics experts regarding the incident at El Mozote. The remains of hundreds of victims were unearthed by this team, and their report offers irrefutable evidence of one of the worst massacres in the history of counterinsurgency warfare.
    • The Dead: Victims at El Mozote and Nearby Villages. This list of names was initially compiled by Tutela Legal, a church-run human rights group in El Salvador, and updated by Mark Danner, author of The Massacre at El Mozote, records the ages and professions of 767 people who were murdered by the U.S.-trained Atlacatl Battalion in a 1981 counterinsurgency operation. Though the list offers only the most basic personal information on these victims of the Reagan administration's "war on communism," it conveys a deeply disturbing indication of the human costs of U.S. military aid to El Salvador, which continued for years following the massacre.
  • U.N. Truth Commission on the El Mozote Massacre (Excerpts)
  • Mark Danner: The Truth of El Mozote, p. 3 of 12
  • Witness Feature Story: El Mozote

Guatemala

Mexico

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South America

  • Search Engines to Check

Brazil

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To Sort

Mountain Meadows Massacre Contents

Kosovo Genocide: Massacres

Evidence about the crimes commited by the serb police, paramillitary and millitary groups.

Today in History

Rediff On The NeT: Congress whip in Bihar seeks CBI probe into Senari massacre

Gunnison Massacre

Khojaly Tragedy (Karabakh civilian massacre) commemoration website

International Press Institute. Search for resources.

Cheju April 3rd Massacre Not Forgotten, Essay on the war here.

Cambodia Genocide Program site (Yale Univ.). Bibliographic Database, Database of testimonies, etc., Interactive maps, Photo database of victims, other. Also: Provincial Killing Fields Maps.

Burundi Massacre of civilians At least 43 people were massacred in Burundi by members of the government armed forces on 31 December 1999 in Kabezi commune, Rural Bujumbura, Amnesty International said today.

Demo to mark Wagalla massacre [Africa News Service Date: 02/14/2000 Subject(s): Africa; ANS; Canada; Community; Government; Human Rights; Men; News; Newsgrid; Author(s): Nation Correspondent] Nairobi (The Nation, February 14, 2000) - The Kenyan Somali community in Canada will today hold a demonstration outside the country's High Commission in Ottawa to mark the 16th anniversary of the Wagala [Wagalla] massacre in Wajir. Five thousand Somali men were rounded up at Wagala by security forces and detained within a barbed wire enclosure for four days while their homes were burnt to the ground, a faxed statement from the community said. "They were tortured and denied their basic rights and over 400 of them died," it added. The community demanded that the bereaved families, who are in the Bula Jogoo area of Wajir, and "currently depending solely on relief aid", be compensated by the government. The perpetrators of the genocide which caused an international outcry should be brought to justice, said the statement. To the Somalis, the Wajir massacre was one of the gravest in a sad history of brutal massacres, including Malkamari in 1976, Garissa in 1980, Modogashe in 1982 and Bagala in 1998, for which the community demands that the government allow an independent commission. The demonstration will express outrage at the abuse of human rights in general and denounce the government's lack of compensation for the victims of these massacres and its failure to bring charges against the perpetrators, the statement said. Copyright © 2000 The Nation. Distributed via Africa News Online.

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Please contact me if you have additional events that do not appear. Because it is not listed here does not mean I do not have material on it. There are so many events in history that have very little coverage, and part of my work is to identify and verify all that I can about the massacres. Any information that you may have is welcome. Thank you.

David J. Bertuca, Associate Librarian, University at Buffalo Libraries, NY
Created 30 May 2000
 
URL: http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~dbertuca/Massacres.html
Contact me if you have any suggestions, comments.
Last modified: 17 July 2012

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