German and Austrian Ancestors in Speech-Language Pathology

1800-1900

Name

Location of affiliation

Selected Contributions

F. Angermann

 

Saw stuttering as due to "defective volition of the mind upon the organs of speech. Organs seized by spasm

Alfred Appelt

Munich

Subscribed to the psychoanalytic approach to stuttering therapy. He compiled the oft cited review of stuttering literature and practice.

Gottfried Arnold

1914-1990

 

Specialist in voice and co-author with Luchsinger of a popular text in the field.

Bruno Bettelheim

1903-1990

 

Psychoanalytic theory of autism-the "refrigerator mother" was the source of the difficulties. Founded a school for children with severe emotional disturbances in Chicago, ILL.

F. Blume

Berlin?

Time-beating method of stuttering therapy.

Frederick S. Brodnitz

1899-1995

 

A well known voice scientist.

Karl Ludwig Buhler 1879-1963

Vienna

A gestalt psychologist and emigre to the US who advanced American thinking about language, thought and perception.

Charlotte Buhler

1893-1974

Vienna

A specialist in child development, known for her diary studies and for her founding of humanistic psychology.

Raphael Coen

Vienna

Coen was a physician, specializing in speech disorders of children. He coined the term "audimute" for children who did not speak before 3 years (German word: Horstummheit). He identified various speech disorders in addition to audimute and developed elaborate therapy regimens including a 70 week program of daily lessons to remedy audimutism and a program of exercise, electro-therapy and elocution to remedy stammering.

Katrina de Hirsch

1903-1996

Frankfort (not trained here)

Katrina de Hirsch specialized in language disorders and learning disabilities. She was among the first to associate early language disorders with later reading disabilities. She was a protege of Samuel Orton.

Johann Frederick Dieffenbach

1795-1847

 

Dieffenbach was a surgeon who became famous in the speech-language pathology profession because of the surgery he did on the tongue to cure stammering (stuttering). His aim was to eliminate the muscle spasm of glottis which he thought caused stammering. Dieffenbach also developed methods for cleft palate surgery.

Theodor Simon Flatau

1860-1937

Berlin

Flatau was an oto-rhino-laryngologist whose Specialty was the singing and speaking voice. He established concepts of "phonasthenia" and "dysodia" He was dismissed from job in Berlin during the Hitler regime, because he was Jewish.

Sigmund Freud

1856-1939

Vienna

This famous psychiatrist/psychoanalyst wrote a book on aphasia that argued against a localizationist theory in the brain as an account for aphasia.

Emil Froeschels

1885-1972

Vienna

This influential speech-language therapist was a well published Austrian "speech doctor" in Austria who came to America in 1938. He began International organization of logopedics and phoniatrics (IALP) and the German Society of Speech-, Language-, and Voice-Pathology, and became well-known for his "chewing method" of therapy.

Robert Froriep

1804-1861

 

Berlin

Physician and director of the Pathological Museum at the Charite in Berlin. Made medical and surgical atlases. Treated stuttering by surgery (dividing the genio-hyoglossus on one side of the body). Used electrical therapy to work with stuttering.

Frances Gall

1758-1828

 

Gall was a neuroanatomist, known for his advandement of faculty psychology and for his ideas about phrenology, where mental faculties were thought to be manifest on the surface of the brain.

Kurt Goldstein

1878-1965

Frankfurt, Berlin

Contributed holistic notions to the study of the brain and aphasia including "abstract attitude."

James Sonnett Greene

1880-1950

Berlin

Director of Hospital for Speech Defects in New York City.

Edward Gunther

 

Principal of an institute for deaf-mute children in Germany. Recommended respiratory, voice, and speech sound exercises for curing stammering.

Albert Gutzmann

1837-1910

Berlin

Teacher of the deaf and director of a Berlin school for the deaf. Gutzmann developed a regimen for treating stuttering in school children (breathing and articulation exercises) (1887) and instructed teachers of the deaf. His son and grandson became well known "speech doctors" in Germany

Hermann Gutzmann Sr.

1865-1922

Berlin

Son of Albert. Founder of a medical movement in Berlin for physicians to specialize in speech and language disorders.

Hermann Gutzmann Jr.

1892-1972

Berlin

Son of Hermann Sr. Hermann Jr. became head of the medical clinic for voice and speech/language disabled, carrying out the tradition of his father.

M. Halle

 

Found breathing patterns of stutterers to differ from normal speakers (Wingate, p. 136)

Herman von Helmholtz

1821-1894,

Berlin

Physician, physicist, mathematician. Blamed stuttering on a spasm of the glottis. Advocated physical relaxation and immobility of the body as therapy.

Augusta Jellinek

Vienna

An opera singer and hearing and voice researcher. She was a researcher in Rome between 1933 and 1938. She left that position because of anti Semitic laws in Mussolini's Italy. Jellinek emigrated to America in 1938 and worked with Max Goldstein in St Louis and then Emil Froeschels.

Herman Klencke,

1813-1881

 

Leipzig

Physician. Described symptoms for cluttering (1842) Klencke was the first to formally to suggest that effective speech correction must deal with the total speech problem, including the psychological as well as the physical (1862). He opened a sanatorium for stammerers and used speech gymnastics (breathing and voicing practice) as his primary therapy method. The average stay at his sanatorium was 20-25 weeks.

Emil Kraepelin

1856-1926

Munich

Kraepelin has been called the father of modern psychiatry. He was the first to identify schizophrenia and manic-depression, and he pioneered the use of drugs to treat mental illness. He was a joint discoverer of Alzeimer's disease, which he named after his collaborator.

Herr Kreutzer

Rostock, Germany

Began a school in 1870 in Rostock Germany. 8 hrs of drill, 6 days/week. Follows rules of speech by beating time.

Adolf Kussmaul,

1822-1902

Leipzig

Kussmaul published a classic book "disturbances of speech" in 1877 in which he made an extensive study of the physiological origins of speech disorders, especially stammering and aphasia.

J. Lehwess

Berlin

Source of stuttering in respiratory organs or psychical (conflict between will and movements) Remedy = rhythm approach

Kurt Lewin

1890-1947

Berlin

Developed theories of group dynamics using field theory and gestalt theory. Considered to be the founder of modern social psychology.

Ludwig Lichtheim

1845-1928

 

Lichtheim was one of the "diagram makers" who supported the localization theory of the brain. He identified brain centers and theorized that their disconnections, caused by brain damage, produced different types of aphasia. He also claimed that when a person can indicate the number of syllables in a word, but cannot say the word, it it is a sign that he has subcortical motor aphasia.

Albert Liebmann

Berlin

A medical educator specializing in the speech and language problems of children.

Richard Luchsinger 1900-1993

Swiss, but studied in Munich, for a while and drew from German physicians

Phoniatrist and ENT who studied with Nadoleczny in Munich. Set up an ENT and Speech Clinic in Zurich (1936). Founder of journal Folia Phoniatrica. 125 publications. Published well known book on voice with Gottfried Arnold

Claud Ludwig Merkel

 

Published a classic book "human phonetics" in 1876. Saw stuttering as a problem with the "adynamic" state of the organs associated with a problem of volition. Treatment was on raising the body tone, lessening the force of the articulators, and strengthening energy of respiratory muscles.

Johannes Peter Muller

1801-1858

 

Physiologist. Studied anatomy of the larynx. Theorized that stuttering originated in the glottis. Recommended omitting "explosive sounds" in reading exercises to keep the glottis open

Max Nadoleczny

1874-1940

Berlin, then Munich

Physician and student of Hermann Gutzmann Sr. Nadoleczny worked in Munich for forty years. Organized free courses for children with speech and language disabilities. 125 published articles. One of the founders of the German Society of Speech-, Language-, and Voice-Pathology

Arnold Pick

1851-1924

 

Pick, a physician and student of Wernicke, distinguished several clinical forms of aphasia.

Fred A. Quadfasel

 

Quadfasel was Chief of Neurology at the vA Hospital in Boston. He influenced Normal Geschwind to become an aphasiologist. Quafasel was a student and collaborator of Kurt Goldstein.

M. Rosenthal

Vienna

Saw cause of stuttering as a problem in the development of the respirator muscles. Later said it was heredity. Treatment: rhythm.

Sandow

 

Recommended rest and relaxation as a therapy for stuttering

William Stern

 

Breslau (the city that is now Wroclaw Poland)

William Stern created the concepts of Mental Age and Intelligence Quotient. He and his research partner, Clara Stern, studied children's development, using their own children as a point of departure.

Alfred A. Strauss

1897-1957

Heidelberg

One of the earliest practitioners and writers about learning disabilities in children, which he considered to be "minimal brain damage."

Leopold Treitel

Berlin

Ear-nose-throat physician with a specialty in childhood language disorders

M. J. Ten Cate

 

Found breathing patterns of stutterers to different from normal speakers (Wingate, p. 136)

Leopold Treitel

Berlin

An ENT who used developmental theory to understand children with speech/language disabilities,

Viktor Urbantschitsch

1847-1921

Vienna

An otologist who developed a method of auditory training for the deaf. Mentor of R. Richard Silverman in the US.

Deso Weiss

 

Best known for is work on "Cluttering." Was a close affiliate of Emil Froeschels.

Egon Weigl

 

A neuropsychologist and aphasiologist, among the first to test the functioning of the frontal lobe.

Heinz Werner

1890-1964

Vienna

Research in the area of child development. Created the organismic theory of development that talked about body involvement in language acquisition. Studied the cognition and perception of children with retardation for 8 years.

P. H. Wolff

Berlin

Wolff saw the cause of stuttering as being from the nerves or organs. He classified stuttering into types. He used medical methods to treat stuttering (medicines and surgery)

Wilhelm Wundt

1832-1920

 

Founder of experimental psychology. Teacher of Edward Wheeler Scripture.

Gertrud Wyatt

1903-1993

Vienna

An early specialist in mother-child interaction, especially as it related to the onset of stuttering and stuttering therapies