|John Conrad Amman
||A Swiss physician practicing in the Netherlands who wrote about instruction for the deaf and for those who stuttered.
||A British statesman and philosopher said to be the father of experimental science. He set out principles of induction that became an important turning point in western scientific studies.
|Juan Pablo Bonet
||Bonet advocated using a one-handed manual alphabet to training the deaf. He attached great importance to early intervention and a consistent language environment. He also advocated the early teaching of speech on the basis of the manual alphabet and the printed word, arguing that the lack of early speech training is an impediment to later speech development.
||a physician who advocated the use of a universal gesture system for expressing words and abstract concepts. He developed a technique for lip reading by the deaf.
||developed the idea of substituting one sense for another. He used visual signs to teach deaf students to read.
||known as the father of modern education. He was a Czech educational reformer and religious leader. His lasting contributions were language teaching picture books, especially ones that taught Latin to Dutch speaking children.
||published a treatise on deafness and on the education of the deaf in 1680. Dalgarno advocated a natural method, believing that language for the deaf could be developed as is language for children with normal hearing. He placed great emphasis on early intervention, advocated finger spelling, and advocated that his manual alphabet be placed in the hornbook for teachers to teach all children.
|Leonardo da Vinci
||best known as a painter, da Vinci was also mathematician, anatomist, and engineer. He dissected the human body, demonstrating for the first time the maxillary sinus and the moderator band. He also depicted the fetus in utero
||a French mathematician and philosopher, considered to be the father of analytic geometry. His philosophy is based on the rationalistic premise "I think, therefore I am." He wrote on ventricular theory and other medical matters.
|Jean Francois Fernel
||a French physician who systematized medieval medicine. Besides being the first to use the term physiology, he was the first to describe appendicitis as an inflammation of the appendix, the first to talk about peristalsis, and the first to describe the spinal canal.
||an English physician who was the first in the Western world to discover and describe blood circulation. He provided in detail the direction of circulation and the properties of blood as it was pumped by the heart through the body.
||taught Alexander Popham, a young deaf boy in 1659. He taught the student to write, copying letters of the alphabet. He also used a “distinctive features” approach to teach speech reading, relying on context to differentiate sounds from one another.
||the founder of British empiricism and promoted experimental studies in medicine and science.
||a phonetician who published three well-known books on language. He invented a symbol system represented ideas or concepts which could be realized in any language. He also proposed a phonetic alphabet in which related sounds were denoted by related symbols.
||a Greek and Latin scholar and physician who wrote extensively about speech disorders. In his chapter in the book on children entitled On injuries to speech in general, Mercurialis identified stuttering as hesitation of the tongue. He saw the condition as one in which people were compelled to repeat the first syllable of words.
||a Swiss alchemist, physician, and astrologer. He countered Galen’s humoral concept of disease and substituted for it a chemical approach. He found the relationships between head wounds and paralysis and observed that defects of speech could occur in the absence of paralysis.
||a French physician and one of the most reknown surgeons of the European early modern period. Prior to Pare’s work as a surgeon, physicians considered surgery beneath their dignity, assigning the task to barber-surgeons.
|Pablo Ponce de Leon
||a teacher of the deaf. His method began with reading and writing and then moved on to teaching speech. He used a manual alphabet in instruction. He also used methods of association. For example, he taught meaning by pointing to the object associated with the written word.
||a French scholar who taught at the University of Paris. He followed the lead of the Dutch humanist Rudolph Agricola (1444-1485) by returning attention to the study of dialectic, an area of rhetoric.
|Franciscus Mercury van Helmont
||was part of a 17th century effort to uncover universal languages. In 1667 he published a The Alphabet of Nature in which he argued that Hebrew was a proto-language and one that was closest to how the speech organs were intended to be used. He worked to show that the sounds of Hebrew were the ones most easily reproduced by the human vocal organs.
||a Flemish anatomist who published a highly influential book: On the fabric of the human body, in 1543. His systematic dissections and the drawings in his book revolutionized the conception of various organs of the body and broke tradition with Galenic medicine.
||taught two deaf students to speak, one, named Alexander Popham was previously a student of William Holder. Both Wallis and Holder claimed to be the first to teach the deaf to speak. Their battle for being first ended up being their main claim to fame as contributors to deaf history.
||a mathematician and natural philosopher and a key player in the Universal Language movement in England in the mid 17th century.
||a British physician. He published Anatomy of the Brain (1664), Pathology of the Brain (1667), and The Mind of Animals (1672), describing the nervous system and its blood supply. He argued that the cerebellum was an organ in charge of the execution of involuntary movements.