Emil Froeschels


Emil FroeschelsEmil Froeschels was a giant in the profession of speech pathology both in Europe and America.  He served as a crucial bridge between European and American Speech Pathology, in the 1940s. 

Froeschels received his medical degree in otolaryngolgy from the University of Jena in Vienna in 1907. He entered the field at a time when there was considerable activity and interest in new theories and approaches to the speech, language and hearing impaired. His teacher, Viktor Urbantschitsch, a well-known otologist had developed an elaborate program of auditory training for children who were deaf. He also entered the field of medicine at a time when the "German speech doctors" in Berlin were devising diagnostic and therapy approaches for working with people with speech and language problems. For example, Albert Liebmann, Hermann Gutzmann, and Leopold Treitel were developing well-known programs and methods of diagnosis and remediation (Weiner, 1986). Froeschels was also influenced by Wilhelm Preyer, a German professor of physiology whose detailed study of his son's language development was being widely circulated (Preyer, 1890). And it was a time when the ideas of Sigmund Freud were taking shape. Froeschels drew from these various sources to develop his theories and practices.

In 1924 Froeschels became head of the Newmann Clinic, a Speech and Hearing Center, in Vienna.  His directorship continued until he was forced to leave for America in 1938.  He called his clinic a logopedics clinic, coining the term logopedics which is now in wide use to mean the scientific study and treatment of speech defects.

Froeschels’ clinic became one of the two major centers for logopedics in Europe, the other being that in Berlin established by Hermann Gutzmann Senior.  The friendly rivalry between the two schools was a strong force in European logopedics before the second world war (Black, 1980).

Froeschels served as a leader in the field both in Europe and the US as indicated by the following:

Froeschels’ academic positions included a Professorship in logopedics at the University of Vienna, 1924-1938 and a research professorship in speech pathology at the Central Institute for The Deaf at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri, 1939-1940.

Froeschels also was founder and director of speech and voice clinics at Mount Sinai Hospital (1940-1949) and Beth David Hospital (1950-1955) and the first director of the Alfred Adler Institute in New York.

The current legacy of Froeschels also stems from his clinical innovations.  His therapy and theory contributions to clinical practice included the following:

Preyer, W. (1890). The mind of the child.  NY: Arno.  (Reprinted in 2005, NY: Elibron). 

Weiner, P. (1986). The study of childood language disorders: Nineteenth century perspectives. Journal of Communication Disorders, 19, 1-47.

References Describing Froeschels Accomplishments:

Black, John (1980). Froeschels in perspective. In R. W. Rieber (Ed). Language development and aphasia in children (pp. 9-32). NY: Academic Press.

Brodnitz, Friedrick S. Necrology: Emil Froeschels. ASHA (1972) 4, 231.

Rieber, R. (1980). Emil Froeschels' Child Language and Aphasia: An historical review. In R. W. Rieber (Ed). Language development and aphasia in children (pp. 3-8) NY: Academic Press.

Segre, Renato, (1972) Obituary, Folia Phoniatrica 24, 79-80.

Stathopoulos, E. & Duchan, J. (2006). History and principles of exercise-based therapy: How they inform our current treatment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 27, 4, 227-235.

Weiss, Deso A. (1969). Emil Froschels on his 85th anniversary. Folia Phoniatrica, 21, 239-253.

Publications: (23 books, 317 articles) (select citations in English are arranged chronologically below)


Froeschels, E. (1918). Child language and aphasia: Thoughts on aphasia based on child language development and its anomalies. Reprinted in Rieber, R. (Ed.) (1980) Language development and aphasia. NY: Academic press.

Froeschels, E. (1932). Psychological elements in speech, Boston, MA: Expression Company. (Lectures in Vienna to physicians, translated into English by Nils Ferre.)

Froeschels, E. (1933). Speech therapy. Boston, MA: Expression Company.

Froeschels, E. (1935). Philosophy and aesthetics of speech. Boston, MA: Expression Company.

Froeschels, E. & Jellinek, A. (1941). Practice of voice and speech therapy: New contributions to voice and speech pathology. Boston, Mass: Expression Company. (European methods with an emphasis on Austria.)

Froeschels, E. (1947). The human race. NY: Philosophical Library.

Froeschels, E. (1948). Twentieth century speech and voice correction. NY: Philosophical Library.

Froeschels, E. (1948). Philosophy in wit. NY: Philosophical Library.

Froeschels, E. (1952). Dysarthric speech: Speech in cerebral palsy. Boston, MA.: Expression Company.

Froeschels, E. (1964). Selected papers of Emil Froeschels (1940-1964). Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co.

Froeschels, E. (1977). The problem of stuttering. NY: Elsevier


Articles and chapters:

Froeschels, E. (1936). Speech and voice defects. In G. M. Piersol (Ed). The cyclopedia of medicine. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Co.

Froeschels E. (1939). Psychogenic impediments of the voice. Laryngoscope, 49, 1225-1230.

Froeschels, E. (1940). A new method in the oral education of the deaf child. The Volta Review, 42, 664-666.

Froeschels, E. (1940). A new method for lip reading for adults. The Volta Review, 42, 369.

Froeschels, E. (1940). Laws in the appearance and development of voice hyperfunctions. Journal of Speech Disorders, 5, 1-4.

Froeschels, E. (1940). What should the schoolroom teacher know about speech and voice impediments? Teachers College Journal (Indiana State Teachers College, Terre Haute). 12, 32-36.

Froeschels, E. (1940). Psychology of the laryngeal functions. Archives of Otolaryngology, 32, 1039-1044.

Froeschels, E. (1941). Differences in the symptomatology of stuttering in the U. S. and in Europe. Journal of Speech Disorders, 6, 45-46.

Froeschels, E. (1942). Review of the pathology and therapy of speech and voice. NY Physician.

Froeschels, E. (1943). Survey of the early literature on stuttering, chiefly European. Nervous Child, 2, 86-95

Froeschels, E. (1943). A contribution to the pathology and therapy of dysarthria due to certain cerebral lesions. Journal of Speech and Disorders, 8, 301-321.

Froeschels, E. (1943). Pathology and therapy of stuttering. Nervous Child, 2, 148-161.

Froeschels, E. (1943). Hygiene of the voice. Archives of Otolaryngology, 38, 122-130.

Hawk, S. S., Froeschels, E., Hall, M., & Pfaff, P. (1943-1944). Selected bibliography from current books and periodicals on speech disorders in time of war, Journal of Speech Disorders, 8, 193-204; 9, 126.

Froeschels, E. (1944). Experiences of a bloodless treatment for recurrens-paralysis. Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 59, 347-358.

Froeschels, E. (1944). Psychic deafness in children. Arch. Neurol. and Psych., 51, 544-549. (Argues that psychic deafness originates in Heschls' convolution. This leads child to aversion of auditory impressions. Prefers the term "central deafness" over "psychic deafness." Three case studies.)

Froeschels, E. (1944). A peculiar intermediary state between waking and sleep. American Journal of Psychotherapy.

Froeschels, E. (1945). The psychosomatic approach to speech disturbances, Journal of Speech Disorders, 10, 221-225.

Froeschels, E. (1945). About the name and some pathologic functions of the "unconscius", Journal of Clinical Psychotherapy, 7, 2, 273-279.

Froeschels, E. (1946). Cluttering. Journal of Speech Disorders, 11, 31-33.

Froeschels, E. & Beebe, H. (1946). Testing the hearing of young children. Archives of Otolaryngology, 43, 93-98.

Froeschels, E. & Beebe, H. (1946). Testing the hearing of newborn infants. AMA Archives of Otolaryngology, 44, 710-714.

Froeschels, E. (1946). A peculiar intermediary state between waking and sleep. Journal of Clinical Psychotherapy, 7, 825-833.

Froeschels, E. (1947). Speech and voice disorders in puberty. Const. Med., London.

Froeschels, E. (1947). A practical method for checking progress during the treatment of sigmatisms. Pract. Oto-Rhi-Laryng., 9, 6, 358-364. (In this article Froeschels recommends the F method for all forms of lisping.)

Froeschels, E. (1948). Should the speech therapist be a voice therapist? Journal of Speech Disorders, 13, 346-350.

Froeschels, E. (1949). Pure word deafness in a child. Quarterly Journal of Child Behavior, 1, 228-240.

Froeschels, E. (1949). Uvula and tonsils. Archives of Otolaryngology, 50, 216-219.

Froeschels, E. (1950). A technique for stutterers--'ventriloquism', Journal of Speech Disorders, 14, 336-337.

Froeschels, E. (1951). The origin of the chewing method. In D. Weiss & H. Beebe (Eds.) The chewing approach in speech and voice therapy. NY: S. Karger.

Froeschels, E. (1951). Stuttering and psychotherapy. Folia Phoniatrica, 3, 1-9.

Froeschels, E. (1951). What is hearing? The Nervous Child, 9, 2-7.

Froeschels, E. (1951). Postoperative hyperrhinolalia. Archives of Otolaryngology, 54, 140-142.

Froeschels, E. (1951). Therapy of the alaryngeal voice following laryngectomy. Archives of Otolaryngology, 53, 77-82.

Froeschels, E. (1952). Chewing method as therapy. Archives of Otolaryngology, 56, 427-434.

Froeschels, E. (1952). The significance of symptomatology for the understanding of the essence of stuttering. Folia Phoniatrica. 4, 217-230.

Froeschels, E. (1952). Some important links between logopedy and otolaryngology, Folia Phoniatrica, 4, 1-8.

Froeschels, E. (1953). Transition phenomena. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 7, 273-277.

Brodnitz, F. & Froeschels, E. (1954). Treatment of vocal cords by the chewing method. Archives of Otololaryngology, 59, 560.

Froeschels, E. (1954). Imitation stuttering. Folia Phoniatrica, 6, 3.

Froeschels, E. (1954). Some voice problems in aphasia. Logopaedie en Phoniatrie, 4, 1-8.

Froeschels, E. (1954). Phonetics old and new. Folia Phoniatrica, 6, 101-110.

Froeschels, E. (1955). The core of stuttering. Acta Otolaryngologica, 45, 115-119.

Froeschels, E. (1955). Contribution to the relationship between stuttering and cluttering. Logopaedie en Phoniatrie, 4. 1-6.

Froeschels, E., Kastein, S., & Weiss, D. (1955). A method of therapy for paralytic conditions of the mechanism of phonation, respiration, and glutination. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 20, 365-370.

Froeschels, E. (1955). Grammar, a basic function of language-speech. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 9, 43-53.

Froeschels, E. (1955). Diagnostic puzzles solved by case history. Speech, 19, 21-23.

Froeschels, E. (1955). Present day psychology of speech. In A. A. Roback (Ed.). Present day psychology. NY: Philosophical Library.

Froeschels, E. (1956). Stuttering. In E. Hahn (Ed.). Stuttering: Significant theories and therapies (pp. 41-47). Stanford CA: Stanford University Press. (2nd edition).

Block, I., Disher, D. & Froeschels, E. (1957). Tonguedness. Folia Phoniatrica, 9, 1, 49-53. (on tongue laterality).

Froeschels, E. (1957). Nose and nasality. Archives of Otolaryngology, 66, 629-633.

Froeschels, E. (1957). A sign of stuttering not described before. Logopaedie en Phoniatrie, 10, 1-6.

Froeschels, E. (1957). The question of the origin of the vibrations of the vocal cords. Archives of Otolaryngology, 66, 512-516.

Froeschels, E. & Pfefferbaum (1957). X-ray findings in F and S with regard to the method for treating lisping. Logopaedie en Phoniatrie, 1.

Froeschels, E. & Pfefferbaum (1957). Revised physioloogy of sounds. Phonetica, 1, 53-62.

Froeschels, E. (1958). Medical and psychological aspects of speech and voice disturbances. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 44, 292-298.

Froeschels, E. (1958-9). Speech and voice in partnership with otolaryngology. AMA Academy of Opthomalogy and Otolaryngology. Course 307-308, 311-312 (with H. Beebe).

Froeschels, E. (1960). Some logopedic therapeutic suggestions. Folia Phoniatrica, 12, 228-233.

Froeschels, E. (1960). Remarks on some pathologic and physiologic conditions of the human voice. AMA Archives of Otolaryngology, 71, 787-788.

Froeschels, E. & Beebe, H. (1960). Symptomology in stuttering: An aid to the case history. Current problems in Phoniatrics and Logopedics, 1, 179-183.

Froeschels, E. (1961). Is handedness organic or functional in nature? American Journal of Psychotherapy, 15, 101-105.

Froeschels, E. (1961). New viewpoints on stuttering. Folia Phoniatrica, 13, 187-201.

Froeschels, E. (1962). A survey of European literature in speech and voice pathology, ASHA, 4, 172-181.

Froeschels, E. (1963). The problem of auditory and visual imperceptivity in stutterers, Folia Phoniatrica, 15, 13-20.

Froeschels, E. (1964). Selected papers of Emil Froeschels, 1940-1964. Amsterdam, North-Holland Publishing Co.

Froeschels, E. (1964). Speech structure and stuttering. The Voice, 8, 20-21.

Froeschels, E. (1966). New York Society for Speech and Voice Therapy in its 20th year. Folia Phoniatrica, 18, 303-306.

Rieber, R. & Froeschels, E. (1966). An historical review of the European literature in speech pathology. In R. Rieber & R Brubaker (Eds.). Speech pathology, (pp. 5-23). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Froeschels, E. (1967). Modern theories on stuttering. Folia Phoniatrica, 19, 142-148.

Froeschels, E. (1967). Introduction. In P. Mueller A dictionary of professional terminology of speech pathology and audiology. German-English, English-German. Springfield, MA: Thomas.

Rieber, R. & Froeschels, E. (1968). Remarks on the paper "On the imperceptivity of stutterers" by R. Martin and C. Starr. Folia Phoniatrica, 6, 3, 434-435.