A Brief Overview of The History of the
Professions of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology In Canada
Virginia Martin, Retired, Speech-Language Pathologist
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
The professions of speech-language pathology and audiology in Canada have been contributing to the quality of life of those with communication disorders for over sixty years. In Canada, the professions have developed differently from their roots in the United Kingdom and in the United States. There are many and varied reasons. This report will focus on the development of the professions starting in 1933.
In the guest editorial for the December 1989 issue of the Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Margaret Roberts and Donald Hood commented about the history to 1989. The issue was to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Canadian Speech and Hearing Association (CSHA) in 1964. Margaret Roberts describes the articles as "...a reminder of how far we have come in 25 years. Not only as a professional association but also in how and why we do what we do day after day to benefit the communicatively impaired... to capture for future generations a part of the joy and frustration that has been our profession in Canada.... The issue is dedicated to the accomplishments of the past and the possibilities of the future."
Donald Hood wrote "... Exactly what is this (a)morphous identity we call a Canadian audiologist? Our European and US counterparts have just a few years on most of us and are our professional parents...."
This article will focus on the developments in the history of speech-language pathology and audiology in Canada:
- The History of Services
- The History of Clinical Procedures
- The Federal Task Forces' Role
- The History of Professional Associations
- Legislation Regulating the Professions
- The History of Canadian National Publications
- Educational Programs in Canada
- Educational Backgrounds of Professionals
- The Career of Isabel Richard Illustrates the History
The dates and development of services are different for different provinces and in the territories of Canada. The educational background of the clinicians also varied by province. All of the early practicing clinicians were educated in other countries. Most received their education in the professions in the United Kingdom, earning the Licentiate of the College of Speech Therapists, London (LCST) or in the United States earning a bachelor's degree or graduate degree from a university. There were also some from Australia, the Netherlands, and South Africa. This diversity made for a more cosmopolitan view, with the professions benefiting from the exchange of information. The diversity also made for some early differences in the establishment of the professional associations.
There were three main groups: Those who were recruited from the United Kingdom (UK), those who were recruited from the United States and those originally from Canada who went to other countries (primarily the United States ) to study. All had professional ties and sometimes personal ties in the country where they received their professional education.
Services in 'speech therapy' began in the 1930s in three provinces. Two were in Children's Hospitals in Montreal, Quebec and in Toronto, Ontario. One was in a school division in Winnipeg, Manitoba. (See Table 1) Service started initially in a major metropolitan area in each province and later expanded to rural and northern areas.
|Table 1. Beginning of Speech-Language Pathology Servicees in each Province|
|Montreal Children's Hospital||1933||Quebec|
|Sick Children's Hospital, Toronto||1938||Ontario|
|Winnipeg School Division||1938||Manitoba|
|Victoria Schools||1940||British Columbia|
|Mental Health Clinic, Regina||1949||Saskatchewan|
|Private Practice, Calgary||1950||Alberta|
|Halifax , Society for Crippled Children||Early 1950s||Nova Scotia|
|Department of Health, St. John's||1960||Newfoundland|
|Prince Edward Island, and New Brunswick. Services started in early 1960s, place and exact date not documented.|
In 1961, the estimate was that there were between 100 and 125 ‘speech therapists and audiologists’ working in Canada. (The two professions were not differentiated in the report.) By 1968 the estimate was about 200, still below the estimated need.
The first record of audiologists providing services was in the 1950s. It was not until the 1960s that all the provinces provided services in both professions.
The mobility of the professionals affected the continuity of service and consequently the establishment of the professions and the professional associations. Since almost all the early practitioners were recruited from other countries, the individuals were by nature mobile. There were many job openings, making it easy to move to another area. The clinicians had professional and often family ties in the country of origin. Since the Canadian association was not founded until 1964 and its national certification was not established until 1985, many maintained membership in other national associations, primarily the American Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA) or the College of Speech Therapists (London, England).
There is no record of clinical procedures in the 1930s and 40s. However in 1952, a thesis, submitted to Kent State University (Ohio), detailed the clinical procedures currently in use in Canada. The author, Isabel Richard, in “A Handbook for Speech Therapists in the Winnipeg Public Schools” described evaluation, therapy, administration and collection of statistics. The appendices included forms for each. The thesis uses both the terms ‘speech correction’, and ‘speech therapy’ reflecting the changing terminology. In 1984 the national association officially adopted the term ‘speech-language pathologist’.
The thesis was forward looking in describing working with parents and teachers and emphasizing the importance of hearing testing. The information is dated by its description of laterality testing and limited references. Only one commercial test is listed: The Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination. The term, delayed speech and language is used, not language disorders. The thesis contains a valuable record of clinical procedures and a description of what was considered best practices in 1952.
A national newsletter began in 1976. In 1977, a column was started in the newsletter, “The Clinicians’ Turn”, a clinical exchange on various issues. Typically there were three respondents from three different areas and a variety of clinical settings. Questions would be posed such as: “What articulation test do you use most often and why?”(1977), and “In planning therapy for children who stutter, what procedures (or methods) do you employ most often? What are the advantages and disadvantages in your work setting?” (October 1978). Each of the three invited respondents would detail the clinical reasoning. The interest created by the material led to all the later columns’ topics being suggested by readers.
A second column, “Current Canadian Clinical Concepts”, described various innovative programs from different areas of the country. For example, “Canadian Cleft Lip and Palate Family Association” in 1978; “Home Centred Videotape Counselling Program for Parents of Preschool Hearing Impaired Children in Newfoundland and Labrador” in 1980, and “Software and Computer Peripherals in Working with the Multiply Handicapped Population” in 1984.
In 1952 articulation tests were clinician-made (Richards, 1952). Richard’s thesis gave a suggested list of words with the various sounds in initial, medial and final positions. All were concrete items that could be pictured. The clinician would locate appropriate pictures in magazines, or books and paste them, usually on file cards or sometimes in a scrapbook to compile the test. Mrs. Richard also suggested during the testing placing a card to mask the therapist’s mouth. She also gave a list of sentences for clients who could read. Each sentence had all three examples of initial, medial, and final consonants in one sentence e.g. “Thank her for putting the toothbrush by the bath”. She also suggested that connected speech be assessed.
By the 1977 report in “The Clinicians’ Turn”, commercial tests were described. One respondent used the Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale (dated 1970) but added that a test must sample the child’s ‘phonemic system’. The clinician describes using the test with flexibility and ends with “It would be well to remember that the mark of a true professional is the intelligent and efficient use of available material combined with the desire to provide the best of our training to our clients”. The other two respondents suggested the Fisher-Logeman Test of Articulation Competence and the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation. The first test, “applies the principles of distinctive feature analysis to the assessment of articulation …Singleton consonants are tested according to syllabic position rather the position within a word.” The third clinician wrote, “I use this test (Goldman-Fristoe) because it provides for obtaining concise, spontaneous and imitative sample of a child’s articulatory habits and skills.”
In 1984 in “The Clinicians’ Turn”, the question was: “Evaluating Preschool Children with Significant Communication Difficulties”. One respondent’s objectives were to assess “Semantic, syntactic, pragmatic and phonological abilities,” describing a wider approach than the earlier clinical reports, and reflecting the on going research into language and communication development.
The newsletter, HearHere and especially the two columns brought professionals closer together and fostered the exchange of clinical practice among those separated by distance, work setting and sometimes educational background. Both columns continued until 1984. Now these two columns preserve a valuable resource on the clinical ideas and practices during the period of their publication.
Task Forces in the rehabilitation professions were originated by the Health Services Directorate, Health Services and Promotion Branch, Government of Canada. Typically the topic was at the suggestion of the various health professions. One series was devoted to the professions of speech-language pathology and audiology. There were also reports focussing on the other rehabilitation professions (i.e. Guidelines for the Client Centred Practice of Occupational Therapy, 1983) and one on working in multidiscipline teams (Rehabilitation Teams: Action and Interaction, 1983.) The federal government funded these reports to improve the quality of care.
The publications of the Federal Task Forces in the 1980s were a significant influence on the establishment of the professions and the status of the national association. The task force reports unified the professions. Their publications, widely distributed, communicated that unity, not only to the members of our professions but also to other professions, employers and the public.
The foreword to the 1982 report, Guidelines for the Practice of Language-Speech Pathology and Audiology reads:
In response to concerns expressed by provincial governments and others, the Department of National Health and Welfare brought together a group of experts to produce this report …
These guidelines have been developed following a Canada-wide review process. National, provincial and regional professional associations as well as practising professionals, across Canada participated in this review. Hopefully these benchmarks will encourage continuing re-examination of existing practices.
This report is not a statement of federal government policy. It constitutes a part of the information base from which policies may be developed. It is hoped that the report will be a valuable guide to others in planning, setting policy on and administering clinical activities in language-speech pathology and audiology. In this way the report may serve to enhance quality of care in these health services in Canada.
Further, the intent of these guidelines is not to formally standardize the delivery of service across Canada. It is neither the role nor the mandate of the Department of National Health and Welfare to implement these guidelines. Rather, the department’s role is to facilitate the development of a framework of common goals, practices and procedures. Thus implementation will vary provincially and regionally depending on human and material resources, and on policies and priorities of those provinces and regions.
The Canadian Speech and Hearing Association, (CSHA, after 1985 CASLPA) was asked to nominate members of our professions for each task force in speech-language pathology and audiology. Along with other professionals and a consumer, the members gathered information, met over a period of years, discussed issues and wrote its report. The reports were published in both official languages and French, and sent to all members of CSHA/CASLPA. They were widely distributed and available on request to others.
The task force reports collected and presented information. The implementation was left to the professionals and the professional associations.
The task force process itself was influential in the establishment of our professions. The members, nominated by CSHA, were chosen by the Health Services Directorate with a view to wide representation: official language, gender, geography, speech pathology and audiology, etc.
There were two beneficial effects of the task forces. One was the exchange of ideas, the consensus on the final report and the distribution of the report. The other was the bringing together of professionals from all across the country, to share what was happening in the various provinces and to learn from each other. The members met as many as ten times over a period of several years. The members spent time together, shared meals and exchanged ideas. Some of the exchanges were related to the topic of the particular task force. Others, shared on time outside the meetings, were on clinical services, professional associations, news from each area, questions/issues and informal discussions.
The publications are valuable, although not now widely known. The reports are a vast reservoir of information on the status of the profession at the time. Much of the information is still relevant today.
For example, the Task Force on the Certification of Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists met in Ottawa, as well as Calgary and Winnipeg. The group researched the status of regulation of the professions and the requirements for continuing education in our professions in Canada and in other countries. Continuing education requirements in other professions were collected as well. One chapter reported on the status of the educational programs in speech-language pathology and audiology in Canada. Definitions were in a glossary, and finally, the report set criteria for a certification program. This report published in 1985 then became the blueprint for CASLPA certification starting the following year.
Each task force published a report varying from 54 to 118 pages plus appendices. Each report had a bibliography. The reports, in both official languages, were widely distributed. Almost every professional had copies in their library. The data collected was referred to and cited in various publications.
Now, twenty years later, the task force reports are a valuable source of information on the professions in Canada. The reports preserve a vital contribution to the establishment of our professions in Canada. The information is of both historical and current interest.
The English titles of the Task Force Reports are
|1980||Clinical Guidelines in Language-Speech Pathology and Audiology|
|1982||Guidelines for the Practice of Language-Speech Pathology and Audiology|
|1984||Childhood Hearing Impairment|
|1985||Guidelines for the Certification of Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists in Canada|
The provincial and one regional association began in the 1950s. Also in 1952, meetings of professionals working in Canada began to be held at the annual conventions of the American Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA).
The Canadian national association, initially named the Canadian Speech and Hearing Association, was founded in 1964 at the ASHA Convention in San Francisco. Subsequent meetings in 1965 and 1966 were also at the ASHA convention. In 1966 the group decided to hold its future meetings in Canada.
Although the national association was founded in 1964, it was not strongly established until the 1980s. Most of the provincial associations had been founded earlier than the national association. Until 1976, the national association was dependent on provincial associations both to invite CSHA to share their meeting and to distribute CSHA news via provincial newsletters. The first CSHA newsletter was started in 1976. The first national CSHA conference was held that year as well.
As CSHA was gradually becoming established and membership was increasing, there remained differences among the professionals who had different educational backgrounds and among the provinces in their professional associations, legislation and in their health care systems.
Because the provincial associations were older and more established, for ten years, the meetings of CSHA were all held in conjunction with provincial meetings until 1976 when the national association held its first convention.
Table 2 outlines the founding dates of the different professional associations in the provinces and territories of Canada.
|Table 2 Founding Dates of Provincial/ Territorial Associations|
|1958||Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan|
|1976||The Atlantic Provinces Speech and Hearing Association was dissolved and the provinces, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick formed separate associations.|
|1979||Prince Edward Island|
The first legislation in North America regulating the professions was passed in the province of Manitoba in 1961. The ‘Act regulating the practice of speech and hearing therapy’ was initiated by the Manitoba Speech and Hearing Association (MSHA) and is still in force. The MSHA had been founded in 1958 with the express purpose of working toward legislation.
Since education and health are provincial matters, any legislation governing the professions is at the provincial level. There are seven provinces in which the practice of speech-language pathology and audiology are self-regulating and governed by legislation (New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia). In these jurisdictions practicing clinicians must be registered/licensed to practice by the provincial regulatory body. Clinicians may practice one of the professions in the remaining provinces and territories without mandatory registration/licensure. In each jurisdiction there is a provincial association in which membership is voluntary but which enforces entry to practice standards and clinical practice for its members.
Although there is considerable congruency in entry-to-practice standards, each province has the discretion to set its own standards. This has made it difficult in the past for clinicians to move from one province to another. Following an initiative undertaken by the premiers of all provinces, there has been developed “An Agreement Respecting Inter-Provincial Mobility of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists.” which has been signed by all provincial regulatory bodies and by the voluntary associations in the provinces and territories in which the practice of the professions is not regulated. Individuals who are members of the signatory bodies now have an established method for moving from one province to another without encountering undue barriers.
Table 3 lists the dates for when legislation was begun in different Provinces to regulate the Professions in Canada.
|Table 3. Chronology of Provincial Legislation to Regulate the Professions in Canada|
The first publication of the national association was a directory published in 1965. Directories of the national association’s membership have been printed periodically since then. The current directory is on the members’ section of the website and is available on request to members in printed format.
‘President’s Newsletters’ were distributed periodically in the first ten years of CSHA. In 1973 the first journal, Human Communication was published. There were four issues over four years. The contents were both news and scholarly articles. One had a listing of professionals working in Canada and membership lists of the provincial and national associations. The journal then continued from 1979 to 1981 as a refereed scholarly publication.
In 1976 a newsletter, HearHere, was established. By 1982 the newsletter was flourishing with clinical columns, discussions of professional issues, news from the provinces and national news with eight issues a year. The Executive decided to amalgamate the two publications into Human Communication Canada, which continued the newsletter format, camera ready, with primarily clinical content and some refereed articles.
After 1984, with a change in staff, the clinical content was not continued but some news was included in the more glossy, larger format, publication. Fewer issues per year, initially five decreasing to four made it difficult to be current with professional news, so a new newsletter was started in 1987 called Communiqué. The separate journal, Human Communication Canada with refereed articles, and occasional clinical material continued. A name change to better reflect the content was made in 1989 to Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology. The current title since 2006 is The Canadian Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology (CJSLPA).
The CJSLPA is published three times a year; the newsletter four times. The association also publishes brochures, resources, policy statements, surveys, etc. The national association maintains a website (www.caslpa.ca) with news, resources, and information.
The provincial associations also have newsletters, various publications and websites.
There are nine programs in Canada educating students to become professionals in speech-language pathology and audiology. The provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Nova Scotia have one each; there are three in Ontario and three in Quebec. Two of the Quebec and one of the Ontario programs are in French. Additional information on the educational programs is on the CASLPA website. Table 4 outlines the founding dates for the various educational programs in both speech-language pathology and audiology.
|Table 4. Founding Dates of Canadian Educational Programs in Speech-Language Pathology (SLP) and Audiology (Aud.)|
|1956||University of Montreal (Quebec)||SLP and Aud. programs (French)|
|1958||University of Toronto (Ontario)||SLP Program|
|1963||McGill University (Quebec)||SLP Program|
|1969||University of Alberta||SLP Program|
|1969||University of British Columbia||SLP and Aud|
|1970||University of Western Ontario||SLP and Aud|
|1976||Dalhousie University (Nova Scotia)||SLP and Aud|
|1983||University of Ottawa (Ontario)||SLP and Aud (fRENCH)|
|2001||Laval University (Quebec)||SLP (French)|
Because in Canada, the educational programs in speech-language pathology and audiology were not established until over twenty years after the first clinical services, all of the early practitioners received their professional education in other countries. The proportions of educational backgrounds of the early clinicians were different for each of the different provinces. The vast majority either had earned a Licentiate of the College of Speech Therapists in London (LCST) or a degree from a university in the United States. There were also graduates of educational programs in Australia, the Netherlands and South Africa. Those who trained elsewhere had professional ties and sometimes personal ties in the countries where they received their professional education.
This diversity made for a more cosmopolitan view, with the profession in Canada benefiting from the exchange of information. It has also made for some early differences in the establishment of the professional associations.
Initially until there were educational programs in Canada, almost all the professionals in Canada were from two different educational backgrounds. The first to practice at Montreal Children’s Hospital, Quebec, held a master’s degree from the United States. The first to practice at the Sick Children’s Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, held a Licentiate of the College of Speech Therapists, London, England (LCST).
The LCST was awarded as a diploma from special schools of speech therapy. After three years of specific education, the candidates took a written and clinical exam set by the College. Successful candidates were awarded the LCST.
The professionals from the US held a bachelor’s or a master’s degree from a university. The differences were between the credentials involving a diploma and a degree. Betty Byers Brown described her observations on the differences in her book in 1971, Speak for Yourself: a career in speech therapy: “The American and the British systems seemed to be in direct contrast to each other regarding emphasis. In Britain you were trained as a therapist and taught by demonstration and by practice how to treat patients. In the states you were required to study the theory of your subject as an academic discipline and to pursue that study as far as possible...
“It is significant that in Britain the student rarely conduced any piece of work that could be called research and equally significant that in the states a mark given for the students practice work rarely influence the quality of his degree. British students have been far too limited intellectually and Americans have not all been taught how to become skillful clinicians. “ She states: “This is now a matter of historical rather than continuing validity.” Currently the UK programs are university degrees.
At one time these differences were an issue in the professions in Canada. One pioneer said that she had been recruited and when she got here, her qualifications were not always respected. Many of the early LCST’s that came to work in Canada later obtained graduate degrees in the United States.
The province of Quebec did not recognize LCSTs. All the other provinces did. The other provinces also differed, however, in compositions of their staff’s backgrounds. For example in 1969, in a survey of provincial association membership (the survey did not include all professionals working in Canada), Manitoba had only a few LCSTs. The speech and hearing associations in Alberta and British Columbia had a majority of LCSTs as members.
In 2000, an International Mutual Recognition Agreement was made among the professional associations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and Canada. Today, almost all of those practicing in Canada have been educated in Canada or in the United States.
Isabel Richard began her career as a “teacher of speech correction and lip-reading” in the Winnipeg School Division in 1942. In 1950 she became head of the then Department of Speech Therapy. In 1951, she accepted an invitation to join the newly formed Child Guidance Clinic of Greater Winnipeg. In the clinic, speech therapy became part of the other more traditional clinic disciplines of Psychology, Psychiatry, Reading and Social Work. She later said that when the speech therapy department joined the clinic, it became necessary for the clinicians to have more professional education, and to write more detailed reports to contribute to the multidisciplinary team.
She insured that her staff participated in continuing education, completed graduate degrees and improved their clinical skills. She went to Kent State University in Ohio to obtain her master’s degree. She was the first professional ‘speech therapist’ with a graduate degree to work in Manitoba. Her thesis, “A Handbook for Speech Therapists in the Winnipeg Public Schools” is now a valuable source of information on best clinical practices in 1952.
At the ASHA Convention in 1952, she convened the first documented meeting of professionals working in Canada. She continued to initiate meetings for twelve years. The group was varied in education, work setting and professional affiliation. The ASHA Convention was the location of the meetings for fifteen years. In 1963 the group decided to poll the then provincial associations. When the group met in 1964 and reviewed the results of the poll, they decided to found the Canadian Speech and Hearing Association. Isabel Richard was the first president and served for two years. In those first two years, the constitution was written and approved. Fluently bilingual in French and English, she insured that the constitution and bylaws were in both official languages of Canada. She edited the first national publication, a directory in 1965.
She remained head of the department within the Winnipeg School Division until her retirement in 1972. As long as she was head, she insisted that all staff contribute to professional associations.
Mrs. Richard’s many contributions to the professions in Canada mark significant milestones for the national and provincial organizations.
- She was a founder and later President of the Manitoba Speech and Hearing Association (MSHA) one of the early provincial associations.
- She was the driving force in the 1961 passage of the legislation regulating the practice of ‘speech and hearing therapy’ in the province of Manitoba, the first such legislation in North American.
- She edited the first national publication, a directory of CSHA in 1965.
- She mentored many professionals who have contributed to the professions and the professional associations all across Canada.
The current Department of Communication Disorders at the Child Guidance Clinic in Winnipeg, Manitoba is the oldest continuous school service in Canada. Its staff has a proud legacy of leadership in the professions and a long history of service to school aged students with communication disorders.
An additional legacy of Isabel Richard is her interest in history and preservation of materials. She wrote the first history of the Canadian association and was instrumental in a 1964 history being written of the MSHA and of the various service agencies in Manitoba. The MSHA has had an Archives Committee since its beginning in 1958 which continues to serve as a resource on the history of the professions.
Her career and contributions continue to be an inspiration and are remembered in the Isabel Richard Student Paper Award given annually by CASLPA.
The professions of speech language pathology and audiology in Canada have a history of contributions in clinical work, organizations, continuing education and research. Only a sampling of the various factors is in this report.
The early differences in the educational background of the professionals in speech-language pathology and audiology made for a more cosmopolitan group who learned from each other and were, in general, open to research and ideas from other countries. Clinicians in agencies and in associations shared knowledge and therapy procedures. One early Manitoba clinician reported that if anyone attended a conference or workshop, the entire group would assemble to hear a report!
The various provincial and national meetings as well as the publications add to the knowledge base and provide contact among the various professionals working over a large geographic area.
This report is based on information currently available. Research is in progress, which will add new information. Questions, additions, corrections are welcome and should be sent to the author, Virginia Martin at firstname.lastname@example.org.
 Since 1985, The Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists (CASLPA). Subsequently, most of the provincial associations also changed from speech and hearing associations to the names of the professions.
 Initially the term Language-Speech Pathology was used to emphasize the importance of language and to encourage use of the term by professionals in Canada. Since the terminology was not adopted, now its use interferes with the accessibility of a valuable document.
 British Columbia has legislation for protection of title. Additional legislation is expected in the next year. The author was not able to document the date of the earlier “protection of title” legislation.
A Selected Bibliography (A complete bibliography is available from the author.)
Brown, Betty Byers (1971). Speak for yourself: The life of a speech therapist. Reading, UK: Educational Explorers.
The Canadian Speech and Hearing Association (1984). Anniversary Issue. Human Communication Canada. VIII, 7.
Doehring, D. and Coderre, L. (1989). The development of Canadian university programs in communication disorders. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, 13, 4, 37-41.
Eldridge, M. (1967). A history of the treatment of speech disorders. Melbourne, Australia: F.W. Cheshire.
Martin, V. and C Sloan (1991). History of the publications of CASLPA. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, 15,3
Martin, V. (July 1996) Birth of an association. Communique, 10,3.
Martin, V. (October 1996) ; Name changes over the years. Communique, 10, 4.
Martin, V. (February 1997) History of our conferences. Communique, 11, 1.
Martin, V. (April 1997) History of our publications. Communique, 11,2.
Martin V. (Fall 2003) Isabel French Richard-MSHA pioneer in the professions in Canada. Hearsay. (Newsletter of the Manitoba Speech and Hearing Association) 20, 3.
Martin, V. (Winter 2004) The professions are recently established in Canada Communiqué 17, 1.
Martin, V. (Winter 2004) Influences from the United Kingdom and the United States; Communique 17, 1.
Martin, V. (Winter 2004) Influences of Geography. Communique, 17, 1.
Martin, V. The Professions of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology in Canada: Some Historical Observations. http://www.caslpa.ca/english/resources/history2.asp. Retrieved January 5, 2008.
Martin, V. (2007) The History of the Professions of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology in Canada: Our first fifty years. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: Author. ISBN 978-0-9783046-0-7.