Martha Taylor Sarno

Martha Taylor SarnoMartha Taylor Sarno has been an innovator in the field of clinical aphasiology and neurogenic communication disorders ever since she entered the field of speech-language pathology, some 60 years ago. As the first speech-language pathologist to work in a medical rehabilitation setting, Sarno designed the framework and developed rehabilitation assessment and therapy methods that have had a lasting impact in the field of speech-language pathology.

Dr. Sarno was hired in 1949 as the Director of the Speech-Language Pathology Department of the Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine. In 1957 she was given a faculty appointment in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, NYU School of Medicine. In 2009 she stepped down as Director and remains on the faculty as a Research Professor. She describes her experience as follows:

I had the good fortune to have been the first speech-language pathologist who served as a member of a rehabilitation medicine team and therefore I had the opportunity to develop the first aphasia rehabilitation program associated with the specialty of rehabilitation medicine (Sarno 2004, p. 21).

The first rehabilitation center in the United States, The Rusk Institute, was established by Howard A. Rusk, the father of rehabilitation medicine. Dr.Rusk designed multifaceted ways to optimize a patient’s physical abilities through a team approach he had developed with servicemen injured in World War II. His model team was comprised of physical therapy, occupational therapy, psychology, vocational counseling and speech-language pathology. It functioned under the leadership of a physiatrist, a physician specialized in rehabilitation medicine. The team provided a multidisciplinary menu of therapies including medications, different physical modalities, therapeutic exercise, movement and activities modification, adaptive equipment and assistive devices, orthotics, prostheses, psychotherapy/counseling, speech therapy and hands-on clinical training. Rusk showed that this broad and multidisciplined approach to recovering function was the best way to help soldiers return to full duty and prepare those unfit for further service to return to their communities.

Martha Taylor Sarno was the first speech-language pathologist hired by Dr.Rusk for his multidisciplinary team. She embraced Rusk’s model of care and applied it to the field of speech-language pathology. She assumed the patient’s perspective and focused on the restoration of functions, as opposed to speaking correctly. She emphasized the importance of the psychosocial impact of aphasia on quality of life as well as its bio-medical implication. She has also served as a conscience to others in the field, raising important issues having to do with the ethical and moral responsibilities associated with professional practices.

Dr. Sarno is perhaps best known in the field of speech-language pathology for the creation of a functional approach to assessment and intervention. In 2002 Dr. Sarno was described by her colleagues as follows:

For over three decades, Martha Taylor Sarno has been a driving force in the functional approach to aphasia and other neurogenic communication disorders. She has championed the need for speech–language pathologists to consider the effects of communication disorders on people’s lives and her publications over the years reflect the maturation of this specialty area in speech–language pathology. Her work, together with other prominent researchers in the field, has been an inspiration to a new generation of aphasiologist (Worrall, et al, 2002, p. 107.

In 1952, Martha Taylor Sarno designed and published what has become a classic assessment tool in the field: the Functional Communication Profile, which has been widely used in the fifty plus years since its original publication. The scale consists of 48 everyday behaviors (i.e., signing one’s name, using the telephone, indicating yes/no) which are rated on the basis of the degree of effectiveness which an individual is believed to use a particular behavior in everyday life. A unique feature of the tool is that a person’s presumed premorbid communication behavior is considered in the ratings.

Psycho-social impact of aphasia

As a researcher and clinician, Dr. Sarno’s focus has always been on how those with aphasia, their friends and relatives experience aphasia. She has published a number of handbooks for families of those with aphasia. Her booklet Understanding Aphasia: A Guide for Family and Friends has had lasting popularity. First published in 1958, it has since gone through 13 printings and 4 editions, and has been translated into 12 languages. The booklet explains what aphasia is, what family members and friends might expect, and what to do and not do to support a person with aphasia.

In the 1950s Dr. Sarno began one of the first education and support groups for families of aphasic patients. In 1957 she founded the National Aphasia Association (NAA), an American advocacy organization that focuses on public education and support services for people with aphasia. The NAA has grown into a regional network of over 475 community support groups across the country. It also provides vital educational materials to people with aphasia and their affiliates through its monthly newsletter, website, and the designation of June as National Aphasia Awareness Month. In 2008 the NAA received the Academy of Neurologic Communication Disorders and Sciences Distinguished Service Award. In the same year the NAA received over 400,000 hits on its website. In its early years Martha Taylor Sarno was President of the organization (1987-2001) and now serves on its executive board.

Dr. Sarno was also among the first to have recognized the importance of examining quality of life changes associated with speech and language therapy. In 1997 she completed a five year NIH funded study of the effects of aphasia secondary to stroke on quality of life in the first year in middle-aged (50-65) and older (66-80) people. In this study, age did not emerge as a significant factor in the effects of aphasia on quality of life and functional communication.

Martha Taylor Sarno has long served as a significant moral conscience for our profession. She has done this through example, through her research and writings and in her presentations all over the world. She has called for a sensibility in which professionals value their clients and work to create clinical and environmental climates that treat the person with a disability with respect. Sarno says it best:

Those who work with the communication-disabled are members of a moral community seeking to empower and restore individuals to a meaningful life experience. We have a duty and an ethical responsibility to sustain each individual’s personhood as much as possible by maintaining, sustaining, and creating relationships, connections, and commitments with the person (Sarno, 2004, p. 28).

Dr Sarno has served as editor of several textbooks. She is widely published with her work appearing in journals, book chapters and monographs. She has also pioneered the publication of educational materials supporting the needs of patients and their family and associates. Besides her popular booklet Understanding Aphasia, she has published other well-known books on aphasia, including the edited volume Acquired Aphasia, now in its 3rd edition.

Dr. Sarno has presented papers, workshops, seminars and served as guest faculty throughout the world. She has given invited lectures throughout the US, in many countries of South America (Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela), as well as Mexico, Canada, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, England, Austria, Yugoslavia and South Africa. Her invitations have not only been from speech language pathologists, but also from groups representing physical therapists, dentists, nurses, and physicians specializing in physical medicine, rehabilitation, family practice, and neurology.

Martha Lamarque was born in New York City. She has lived there nearly all her life. She describes herself as “a New Yorker, through and through”. In high school, Martha Lamarque was an avid tennis player, becoming runner-up in a champion junior girls league. After high-school, she went to Michigan State University where she studied with Lucia Morgan Neesom. She considers her courses with Neesom as formative to her career because of her emphasis on the biological/neurological bases of communication disorders.

In 1967 Martha married John Sarno, a Board certified physiatrist physician and specialist in stroke and, more recently, in psychosomatic medicine. Martha and John worked together in facilitation of family groups at the Rusk Institute, well before this became a popular treatment. They have a daughter, Christina, and a grandson who was born in 2003.

The contributions of Martha Taylor Sarno to the field of speech pathology have been recognized broadly by her colleagues and speech-pathology and rehabilitation medicine over the years. She is a Fellow of the American Speech and Hearing Association and in 1999 received the Honors of that association, their highest award. She is also a recipient of the Gold Key Award from the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine; the Outstanding Alumni Award from the College of Communication Arts and Sciences at Michigan State University; the Louis M. di- Carlo Award, the Rusk Award from the Howard A. Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine; and the Frank R. Kleffner Clinical Career Award from the ASHA Foundation. Among Dr. Sarno’s most coveted awards was the Doctor of Medicine honoris causa by the University of Goteborg School of Medicine, Goteborg, Sweden, that she received in 1982. This honor is rarely awarded and even more rarely awarded to non-physicians. And in 2009 she recieved the honors of the prestigious Academy of Neurological Communicative Disorders and Sciences for her "enormous impact on the field of aphasiology."  

The research and clinical advances made by Martha Taylor Sarno have had an international impact. Her publications have been translated into many other languages. Her visibility through her publications has resulted in her being involved in establishing aphasia rehabilitation programs throughout the world. Her generosity is also evidenced from her recent gift of her precious historical professional library on neurogenic disorders to the Trinity College in Dubln, Department of Clinical Speech and Language Studies.

Selected Publications

1950 - 1959

Taylor, M. and Myers, J. (1952). A group discussion program with families of aphasic patients. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 17, 393-396.

Rusk, Howard A., Deaver, George G., Covalt, Donald A., Marks, Morton M., Benton, J. and Taylor, Martha (1952). Hemiplegia and Rehabilitation, (Monograph). NY: Merck, Sharp and Dohme.

Taylor M. & Marks M. (1955) Aphasia rehabilitation manual and workbook. NY: Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, NYU Medical Center.

Taylor, M. (1957). Los pacientes afasicos. El Medico, 6, 41-43.

Taylor, M. (1957). Speech problems of hemiplegics. Public Health Reports, 72, 832-835.

Marks, M., Morton M., Taylor, M., and Rusk, H. (1957) Rehabilitation of the aphasic patient: A survey of three years experience in a rehabilitation setting. Neurology, 7, 837-843.

Marks, M., Morton M. and Taylor, M. (1957). Rehabilitation of the aphasic patient: A survey of three years experience in a rehabilitation setting. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 38, 219-226.

Taylor, Martha (1958, 1964, 1971) Communication disorders. In Howard A Rusk (ed.), Rehabilitation medicine.1st & 2nd 3rd editions (pp. 248-250). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby Co.

Taylor, Martha (1958, 1964, 1971) Laryngectomy. In Howard A. Rusk (ed.), Rehabilitation medicine.1st & 2nd3rd editions. (pp. 442-444). St Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby Co.

Taylor, M. (1958) Understanding aphasia: A guide for family and friends. NY: New York University Medical Center. (The most recent version of this popular booklet was in 2004, which marked its fourth edition and 13th reprinting).

Taylor, M. & Marks, M. (1959). Aphasia rehabilitation manual and therapy kit. NY: McGraw Hill.

1960 - 1969

Taylor, M. (1964). Aphasia. In E. Rothenberg (ed.) Dynamic living for the long-term patient (pp. 42-46). Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown Book Company.

Taylor, M. (1964). Linguistic considerations of the verbal behavior of the brain damaged adult. The Linguistic Reporter, 6

Taylor, M. (1964). Language Therapy. In Burr, H. (ed.), The Aphasic Adult: Evaluation and Rehabilitation, Proceedings of the Short Course in Aphasia. Wayside Press, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1964.

Sarno Taylor, Martha (1965). A measurement of functional communication in aphasia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 46, 101-107.

Sarno, Martha Taylor & Sands, Elaine (1967). A selected bibliography of verbal impairment secondary to brain damage. Rehabilitation Monograph 34.

Taylor, M. (1966). Programmed instruction and speech rehabilitation." New York State Speech and Hearing Association Newsletter, 5, 1966.

Taylor, M. & Sands, E. (1966). Application of programmed instruction to the language training of severely impaired aphasic patients." National Society for Programmed Instruction Journal, 5.

Taylor, M. (1967). Programmed instruction therapy in aphasia. Journal of the New Jersey Speech and Hearing Association, 5, 1, 7-10.

Shankweiler, D., Harris, K. and Taylor, M., (1968). Electromyographic studies of articulation in aphasia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 49, 5, 210-216.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1968). Method for multivariant analysis of aphasia based on studies of 235 patients in a rehabilitation setting. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 49, 5, 269-275.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1968). Speech impairment in Parkinson's Disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 49, 5, 269-275.

Sarno, J. & Sarno, M. (1969). Stroke: The condition and the patient. NY: McGraw Hill. See also editions in 1970, 1972, 1974.

Sarno, J. and Sarno, M. T. (1969). The diagnosis of speech disorders in brain damaged adults. Medical Clinics of North America, 53 3), 561-573. (Spanish and Portuguese Eds.)

Sands, Elaine, Sarno, Martha Taylor, and Shankweiler, Donald. (1969) Long term assessment of language function in aphasia due to stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 50, 202-206.

Swisher, L. and Sarno, M. T. (1969). Token Test scores of three matched patient groups: Left brain damaged with aphasia; right brain damaged without aphasia; non-brain damaged. Cortex, 5 3, 264-273.

Sarno, J., Swisher, L., and Sarno, M. T. (1969). Aphasia in a congenitally deaf man. Cortex, 5, 4, 398-414.

Sarno, M. T. (1969). The Functional Communication Profile: Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, New York University Medical Center.

1970 - 1979

Sarno, M. T, & Sands, E. (1970). An objective method for the evaluation of speech therapy in aphasia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 51, 1, 49-54.

Sarno, M. T., Silverman, M., & Levita, E. (1970). Psychosocial factors and recovery in geriatric patients with severe aphasia. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 18, 405-409.

Sarno, M. T., Silverman, M. & Sands, E. (1970). Speech therapy and language recovery in severe aphasia." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 13, 3, 607-623.

Sarno, M. T. (1970) A Survey of 100 aphasic medicare patients in a speech pathology program. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 18, 471-480.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1971). Principles in the management of communication impairment. In Howard Rusk, (ed.), Rehabilitation medicine. 3rd Ed. (pp. 238-250). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby Co.

Sarno, John, Sarno, Martha Taylor and Levita, Eric (1971). Evaluating language improvement after completed stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 52, 2, 73-78.

Sarno, Martha Taylor and Levita, Eric (1971). Natural course of recovery in severe aphasia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 52, 175-178.

Sarno, M. T. (1971). The role of the family in aphasia." In T. D. Hanley, (ed.), Proceedings of the Post Graduate Short Course: The Family as Supportive Personnel in Speech and Hearing Remediation. University of California, pp. 61-66.

Sarno, John, Rusk, Howard, Diller, Leonard and Sarno, Martha Taylor (1972) The effect of hyperbaric oxygen on the mental and verbal ability of stroke patients. Stroke, 3, 1, 10-15.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1972). Aphasia: Selected readings. Appleton-Century Crofts, New York.

Sarno, Martha Taylor, Sarno, John and Diller, Leonard (1972). The effect of hyperbaric oxygen and communication function in adults with aphasia secondary to stroke. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 15, 42-48.

Gazzaniga, Michael, Glass, A. Velletri, Sarno, Martha Taylor and Posner, J. B. (1973). Pure Word deafness and hemispheric dynamics: A case history. Cortex, 9, 136-143.

Sarno, John, Sarno, Martha Taylor and Levita, Eric (1973). The Functional Life Scale. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 54, 214-220.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1974). Aphasia rehabilitation. In Dickson, Stanley (ed.), Communication disorders: Remedial principles and practices (pp.400-439). Glenview, IL; Scott, Foresman and Co.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1975). Disorders of communication in stroke. In Sidney Licht, (ed.), Stroke and its rehabilitation (pp. 380-408). Baltimore MD: Williams and Wilkins.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1976). The status of research in recovery from aphasia. In Y. Lebrun, and R. Hoops (eds.), Recovery in aphasics 4 (pp. 13-30). Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1978). A measurement of functional communication in aphasia. In Cynthia Shewan (ed.), Speech and language disorders: Selected readings (pp. 380-389). NY: Harper & Row.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1979). The management of the patient with communication impairment." In Rosemary Murray, and Jean Kijek, (eds.), Current perspectives in rehabilitation nursing. C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis.

Sarno, Martha Taylor and Levita, Eric. (1979) Recovery in treated aphasia in the first year post stroke. Stroke, 10, 663-670.

Sarno, John & Sarno, Martha T. (1979) Stroke: A guide for patients and their families. NY: McGraw Hill.

1980 - 1989

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1980). Outcome of language rehabilitation in the elderly aphasic patient. In L. Obler, L. and M. Albert (eds.). Language in the elderly: Clinical, therapeutic and experimental aspects. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.

Sarno, Martha Taylor. (1980) Analyzing aphasic behavior. In M.T. Sarno and O. Hook (eds.), Aphasia: Assessment and treatment. NY: Almquist and Wiksell.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1980). Aphasia rehabilitation. In M.T. Sarno and O. Hook (eds.), Aphasia: Assessment and treatment. NY: Masson, Ltd.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1980) Review of research in aphasia: recovery and rehabilitation. In M.T. Sarno and O. Hook (eds.), Aphasia: Assessment and treatment. NY: Masson, Ltd.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1980). The nature of verbal impairment after closed head injury. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168, 685-692.

Sarno, M. T. and Hook, O. (eds.), (1980). Aphasia: Assessment and treatment. NY Masson, Ltd.

Sarno, Martha Taylor and Levita, Eric (1981). Some observations on the nature of recovery in global aphasia after stroke. Brain and Language, 12, 1-12.

Sarno, Martha Taylor. (ed.) (1981), Acquired aphasia. Academic Press, New York.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1981). Recovery and rehabilitation in aphasia. In M. T. Sarno (ed.), Acquired aphasia. (pp. 485-529) Academic Press, New York.

Sarno, Martha Taylor and Buonaguro, Antonia (1983). Factors associated with independent meal preparation in aphasic females: A pilot study. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 3, 24-34.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1983). The functional assessment of verbal impairment. In G.Grimby, G. (ed.), Recent advances in rehabilitation medicine. (pp. 75-81). Stockholm, Sweden: Almquist and Wiksell.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1983). Communication disorders in the elderly. In T. F. Williams (ed.), Rehabilitation of the Geriatric Patient. NY: Raven Press.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1984). Functional measurement in verbal impairment secondary to brain damage. In C. Granger and G. Gresham (eds.), Functional assessment in rehabilitation medicine. (pp. 210-222). Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1984). Verbal impairment after closed head injury: Report of a replication study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172 (8), 475-479.

Sarno, Martha T. (1984). Karol Kozlowski (1885-1969). Polish American Folk Painter. NY: Summertime Press.

Sarno, Martha Taylor, Buonaguro, Antonia and Levita, Eric. (1985) Gender and recovery from aphasia after stroke. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 173 (10), 605-609.

Sarno, Martha Taylor and Levin, Harvey S. (1985) Speech and language disorders after closed head injury. In J. K. Darby, (ed.), Speech Evaluation in Neurology-Adult Disorders (pp. 323-339). NY: Grune and Stratton, New York, 1985.

Sarno, Martha Taylor, Buonaguro, Antonia, and Levita, Eric (1986) Characteristics of verbal impairment in closed head injured patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67, 6, 400-405.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1986). The Academy of Aphasia: A twenty-five year history. NY: The Academy of Aphasia.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1986). The silent minority: The patient with aphasia. Fifth Annual James C. Hemphill Lecture Chicago, IL: Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago.

Sarno, Martha Taylor. (1987). The silent minority: The patient with aphasia. The New Zealand Speech-Language Therapist's Journal, 2-14, Vol. XLII.

Sarno, Martha Taylor, Buonaguro, Antonia and Levita, Eric (1987) Aphasia in closed head injury and stroke. Aphasiology, 1 (4), 331-338.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1988). Language and speech defects. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine Supplement, 17, 55-64.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1988). The case of Mr. M: The selection and treatment of aphasic patients. In Janet Haas, Arthur L. Caplan, Daniel J. Callahan (Eds.) Case studies in ethics and rehabilitation medicine. (pp. 24-28). The Hastings Center.

Sarno, Martha Taylor and Woods, Diane (eds.) (1989). Aphasia rehabilitation in Asia and the Pacific region: Japan, China, India, Australia and New Zealand. Monograph # 45. NY: World Rehabilitation Fund, Inc.

1990 - 1999

Sarno, John E. and Sarno, Martha Taylor (1990). Dr. Rusk dies: Father of Rehabilitation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 71.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1990). Aphasia and related disorders. In J. Bernthal, J. Hall, J. B. Tomblin JB. 1990 Year Book of Speech, Language, and Hearing. Mosby Year Book.

Sarno, Martha Taylor and Weniger, Dorothea (1990) (eds.) Aphasia rehabilitation in the 21st Century. Aphasiology. Monograph Supplement. September-October, Vol.4, No. 4.

Weniger, Dorothy and Sarno, Martha Taylor (1990). The future of aphasia therapy: More than just wine in old bottles. Aphasiology. Monograph Supplement. September-October, Vol. 4, No. 4.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1991) (ed.). Acquired aphasia, (Second Edition). Academic Press, New York.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1991). The psychological and social sequelae of aphasia. In M. T. Sarno (ed.) Acquired aphasia (2nd edition). (pp. 521-582). San Diego: Academic Press.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1991). Management of the patient with aphasia. In Robert Bornstein & Gregory Brown (eds.) Neurobehavioral aspects of cerebral vascular disease. NY: Oxford University Press.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1992). Treatment In aphasia: Research and research needs. Aphasia treatment: Current approaches and research opportunities. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Monograph 93-3424. Bethesda, MD: NIH.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1992). Preliminary findings: Age, linguistic evolution and quality of life in recovery from aphasia. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, Suppl. 26, 43-49.

Ponzio, J., LaFond, D., Degiovani, R., Joanette, Y. and Sarno, M.T. (eds.). (1993) Living with aphasia. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishers.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1993). Ethical-moral dilemmas in aphasia rehabilitation. In J. Ponzio, D. LaFond, R. Degiovani, Y. Joanette, and M. T. Sarno (eds.). Living with aphasia. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishers.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1993). Aphasia rehabilitation: Psychosocial and ethical considerations. Aphasiology, 7, 321-334.

Haravon,, Anita; Obler, Loraine & Sarno, Martha Taylor (1994). A method for microanalysis of discourse in brain-damaged patients. In R. Bloom, L. Obler, S. DeSanti, J. Erlich (Ed.) Discourse analysis and applications: Studies in adult clinical populations (pp. 47-80). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1994). Neurogenic disorders of speech and language. In O'Sullivan, S. & Schmitz, T. J. (Eds.), Physical rehabilitation: Assessment and treatment (3rd Ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Co.

Wiener, Debra; Obler, Loraine K., & Sarno, Martha Taylor (1995). Speech-language management of the bilingual aphasic in a U.S. urban rehabilitation hospital. In Michel Paradis (ed.). Aspects of bilingual aphasia. Tarrytown, NY: Pergamon-Elsevier Science, Inc.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1995). Aphasia. In A. E. Dell Orto, & R. P. Marinelli, (eds.), Encyclopedia of disability and rehabilitation. NY: MacMillan.

Sarno, Martha Taylor & Chambers, Nancy (1997). A horticultural therapy program for individuals with acquired aphasia. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 22: 1-2, 81-91.

Sarno, Martha Taylor & Chambers, Nancy (1997). A horticultural therapy program for individuals with acquired aphasia. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 22, 1-2, 81-91.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1997). Quality of life in aphasia in the first poststroke year. Aphasiology, 11 (7), 665-679.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (ed.) (1998), Acquired aphasia, Third Edition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1998.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1998). Aphasia: Rehabilitation and recovery from loss. In Wallace Sife (Ed). After stroke: Enhancing the quality of life (pp. 83-91). NY: Hayworth Press.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1998). Recovery and rehabilitation in aphasia. In M. T. Sarno (Ed.) Acquired aphasia (pp. 595-631). San Diego: Academic Press.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (1999). Aphasia: Rehabilitation and recovery from loss. In Austin H. Kutscher (ed.). Stroke and quality of life: Psychosocial adaptation to loss and the bereavement of physical disability. The patient, the family, the staff and the community. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.

2000 -

Sarno, Martha Taylor (2000). Foreword. In C. Pound, S. Parr, J. Lindsey & C. Woolf. Aphasia and beyond: Therapies for living with communication disability. Oxon, UK: Winslow Press.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (2000). Neurogenic disorders of speech and language. In S. O’Sullivan & T. J. Schmitz, T. J. (eds.), Physical rehabilitation: Assessment and treatment (4th Ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Co.

Nass, Ruth, Boyce, Leslie, Leventhal, Fern, Levine, B., Maxfield, C., Salsberg, D., Sarno, Martha Taylor, George, A. & Allen, J. (2000) Acquired aphasia in children after surgical resection of left thalamic tumors. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 42, 9, 580-590.

Sarno, Martha Taylor. (2002). Aphasia. In Encyclopedia of the human brain. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (2004). Aphasia therapies: Historical perspectives and moral imperatives. In J. F. Duchan.& S. Byng, S. (eds.), Challenging aphasia therapies: Broadening the discourse and extending the boundaries (pp. 19-32). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Sarno, Martha Taylor & Peters Joan (2004). Adaptation of U S edition of Parr, S, Pound, C., Byng, S., Moss, B., and Long B. The stroke and aphasia handbook London, UK: Connect. The Communication Disability Network.

Sarno, Martha Taylor, Postman, Whitney Anne, Cho, Young Susan, Norman, Robert G. (2005) Long-term effects of therapeutic intervention on phonemic word fluency performance in post-stroke aphasia. Journal of Communication Disorders, 38, 83-107.

Sarno, Martha Taylor (2006). Neurogenic disorders of speech and language. In S. O'Sullivan, & T. Schmitz, T. J. (eds.), Physical rehabilitation: Assessment and treatment (5th Ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Co., Philadelphia.

Sarno, Martha Taylor, Cho, Young Susan, Robert Norman. (2007) Living with chronic aphasia: A preliminary study. Procedings of 4th World Congress of the International Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Seoul, Korea.

Writings about the work and contributions of Martha Taylor Sarno

Burthier, Marcele (2000). Explaining acquired aphasia: A multidisciplinary perspective. Review of M. T. Sarno’s Acquired aphasia (3rd edition). American Journal of Psychology, 113, 3, Autumn, 464-471.

Worrall, Linda, McCooey, Robyn, Davidson, Bronwyn, Larkins Brigette, and Hickson, Louise (2002). The validity of functional assessments of communication and the Activity/Participation components of the ICIDH-2: Do they reflect what really happens in real-life? Journal of Communication Disorders, 35, 107-137.

Braun, Claude M. J. and Baribeau, Jacinthe M. C. (1987) Subclinical aphasia following closed head injury: A response to Sarno, Buonaguro, and Levita. In Clinical Aphasiology Conference Proceedings: Clinical Aphasiology Conference 17th: Lake of the Ozarks, MO : May 31-June 4, 1987 pages 326-333. BRK Publishers. http://aphasiology.pitt.edu

Festschrift honoring Martha Taylor Sarno, Journal of Communication Disorders, 35, #2, 2002. Introduction by Audrey Holland, p. 87.