Speech Correction: Principles and Methods


C. Van Riper, Ph.D

Director of the speech clinic

Western State Teachers College

New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1939



1. Speech handicaps and the need for speech correction

  1. Primitive reactions of society to the handicapped
  2. Reactions of children to the handicapped
  3. Reactions of educated adults to the handicapped
  4. Present treatment of other handicapped individuals
  5. Treatment of the speech handicapped
  6. The need for speech correction
  7. Responsibility for speech correction
  8. Where responsibility should fall

2. The nature of speech

  1. Respiration
  2. Phonation
  3. Resonation
  4. Articulation

3. The development of speech

  1. The birth cry and other reflexive sounds
  2. Babbling and vocal play
  3. Socialized vocalization
  4. Practice of inflections
  5. Teaching the child to say his first words
  6. The one-word sentence
  7. Vocabulary and sentence strucgture
  8. Causes of delayed speech
  9. Mastering the various speech sounds

4. Recognition and prevention of speech disorders

  1. Definition
  2. Classification
  3. Prevention

5. The speech defective

  1. Personality and behavior problems as causes and consequences of speech defects
  2. The study of personality The importance of physical, environmental, and behavioral differences
  3. Penalties and approvals
  4. Reaction to penalty or approval
  5. Regressive or withdrawal behavior as a reaction to penalty
  6. Aggressive or protest behavior as a reaction to penalty
  7. Intelligent unemotional acceptance as a reaction to penalty
  8. Treatment of persons with personality and behavior problems
  9. Discovering and eliminating the nuclei of personality problems
  10. Eliminating and minimizing the penalties and unmerited approvals that produce maladjustment
  11. Eliminating the withdrawal and attach reactions which characterize the maladjustment
  12. Treatment of individuals with certain special personality and behavior problems

6. The speech correctionist and general procedures in treatment

  1. Qualifications of the professional speech correctionist
  2. Principles of professional conduct
  3. Preparation of speech correctionist
  4. Speech correction in the public schools
  5. Selection of cases
  6. Organization of speech correction in the public schools
  7. Speech correction and the classroom teacher
  8. Speech correction in the home
  9. Group versus individual techniques
  10. Differences in the treatment of children and adults

7. The case history

  1. Uses and limitations of the case history
  2. Rapport
  3. Administering the case history

8. Special tests and examination methods

  1. Intelligence tests
  2. Personality tests
  3. Achievement tests
  4. Auditory acuity
  5. Auditory memory span
  6. Pitch discrimination
  7. Laterality
  8. Vertical board test of laterality
  9. Breathing
  10. j. Motor coordination
  11. Examination for organic defects
  12. The autobiography

9. Speech tests

  1. Articulation tests
  2. Phonation
  3. Disorders of symbolic formulation and expression
  4. Examination for stuttering

10. Treatment of the child who has not learned to talk

  1. Types of delayed speech
  2. Causes of delayed speech
  3. Low intelligence
  4. Hearing defects
  5. Poor coordination
  6. Illness
  7. Lack of motivation
  8. Poor speech standards
  9. Improper methods used in teaching the child to talk
  10. Shift of handedness
  11. Bilingual conflicts
  12. Emotional shocks and accidents
  13. Emotional conflicts
  14. Poor auditory memory span
  15. Aphasia
  16. General principles of treatment
  17. Selecting the first words
  18. Ear training for delayed speech cases
  19. The production of speech sounds
  20. Kinesthetic methods
  21. Word production

11. Treatment of articulatory disorders

  1. General principles of treatment
  2. Convincing the student that he makes speech errors
  3. Elimination of the causes
  4. Ear training
  5. Methods for teaching a new sound
  6. Strengthening the new sound
  7. Making the transition to familiar words
  8. How to get the child to use the new sound

12. The treatment of voice disorders

  1. The treatment of pitch disorders
  2. The treatment of intensity disorders
  3. The treatment of disorders of voice quality

13. The treatment of stuttering

  1. The problem of stuttering
  2. The nature of the stuttering block
  3. The development of stuttering
  4. Treatment of the young stutterer in the primary stage of stuttering
  5. The treatment of the stutterer in the secondary stage
  6. Summary of the activities in the first period of treatment
  7. The second period of therapy
  8. The third period of therapy

14. Cleft-Palate Speech

  1. Causes
  2. Articulatory and phonatory aspects of the disorder
  3. Surgical treatment
  4. Speech correction procedures
  5. Strengthening the soft palate
  6. Directing the air flow through the mouth
  7. Increasing mobility of articulatory structures
  8. Correction of defective consonant and vowel sounds

15. The problem of bilingualism and foreign dialect

  1. Aims of treatment
  2. Difficulties experienced by the foreign speaking individual
  3. Treatment of the young non-English-speaking child
  4. The speech problem of the adult with foreign speech or accent
  5. Vocabulary
  6. Errors in producing the English vowels and consonants
  7. Stress
  8. Melody
  9. Sentence structure
  10. Thinking in English