Sara Mae Stinchfield Hawk


Dr. Sara Mae Stinchfield Hawk received the first Ph.D. in America in the field of Speech-Pathology. She obtained national recognition for her organization work in ASHA, for her several books on diagnostic categorization of Speech Disorders, and for her books with Edna Hill Young on the moto-kinesthetic approach to speech therapy with children.

Sara Stinchfield was born in Auburn, Maine in 1885. She was awarded a diploma in 1909 from the Curry School of Expression in Boston. In 1914, she received her bachelors from the University of Pittsburgh, in 1920 she was awarded a Masters by the University of Iowa, and in 1922 she was awarded her Ph.D. in the field Speech Pathology from the newly formed doctoral program at the University of Wisconsin. Smiley Blanton, a psychiatrist who started the program there, was Dr. Hawk's thesis advisor. Dr. Hawk also attended the University of Vienna and the University of London. Her dissertation was on "The formulation and standardization of a series of graded speech tests."

Dr. Hawk was one of the 25 people who founded the American Speech and Hearing Association in 1925. She later served as ASHA Secretary (1925-1930), chair of the membership committee (1932+), member of the nomenclature committee (1939-1940) and ASHA president (1939-40). She became an ASHA fellow in 1925, an honorary life member in 1950, and received the the association's highest honors in 1953.

From 1922 to 1932, Dr. Hawk was an associate professor in the Department of Psychology of Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts. She moved to Los Angeles in 1932 and became a lecturer at the University of Southern California until 1944. During this time she also served as the Director of the Speech Clinic at the Orthopedic Hospital of Los Angeles.

Obituary in Asha, 1978, 20, p. 23 (with photo)



Hawk, Stinchfield Sara (1920). A preliminary study in corrective speech, University of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare, Vol 1, No. 3. Whole no. 39.

Hawk, Stinchfield Sara (1928). Psychology of speech, Boston, Mass: Expression Co. Publishers.

Hawk, Stinchfield Sara (1928). Speech pathology with methods in speech correction. Boston, Mass., Expression Company.

Robbins, Samuel Dowse. & Hawk, Stinchfield Sara (1931). A dictionary of terms dealing with disorders of speech. Boston: American Society of the Study of Disorders of Speech.

Hawk, Stinchfield Sara (1933). Speech disorders. NY: Harcourt Brace & Co.

Young, Edna Hill & Hawk, Stinchfield Sara (1938). Children with delayed or defective speech: Motor-kinesthetic factors in their training. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

Hawk, Stinchfield Sara (1950). Speech therapy for the physically handicapped. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press

Young, Edna Hill & Hawk & Stinchfield Sara (1955). Moto-kinaesthetic speech training. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press. (based on Children with delayed or defective speech, 1938)

Articles and Monographs

Stinchfield, S. (1919). The speech of the normal child. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 5, 1-5.

Stinchfield, S. & Foulke, Katherine (1919). The speech of the normal child. Quarterly Journal of Speech Education, 5, 1-15. .

Stinchfield, S. (1920). A preliminary study in corrective speech. Studies in Child Welfare (1 #3). Iowa City, Iowa: Iowa State University. (Masters' thesis)

Stinchfield, S. (1921). The standardization of speech testing material. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 7, 360-369.

Stinchfield, S. (1923). Practical speech measurements. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 9, 77-84.

Stinchfield, S. & Blanton, S. (1923). Speech measurements, speech manual. Chicago: C. H. Stoelting & Co. (Speech measurements devised in the speech clinic of the department of speech, University of Wisconsin. Tests from pre-school and kindergarten through grade 8 and an adult test.)

Stinchfield, S. (1924). The formulation and standardization of a series of graded speech tests. Psychological Review Monographs Vol 33, # 2, whole no. 149. (MacCarthy, bib). (Univ of Wisconsin thesis, LOCongress call number vol.33, no.2.)

Stinchfield, S. (1924). Suggestions for the study of individual speech cases. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 10, 157-162.

Stinchfield, S. (1925). The speech of five hundred freshman college women. Journal of Applied Psychology, 9, 109-121.

Stinchfield, S. (1926). The importance of speech defects as a personnel problem. Journal of American Speech, 2, 148-152.

Stinchfield, S. (1926). The speech of the blind. Proceedings of Biennial Conference. Nashville, Tenn. Teachers of the Blind.

Stinchfield, S.& Dorsey, J. (1926). A preliminary classification of speech defect terminology. Oralism and Auralism, 5, 71-78.

Stinchfield, S. (1927). Some relationships between speech defects, musical disability, scholastic achievement and maladjustment. Quarterly Journal of Speech Education. 13, 268-275.

Stinchfield, S. (1927). Expression as an index of intelligence. Journal of Expression, 1, 8-12.

Stinchfield, S. & Foulke, Katharine (1929). The speech development of four infants under two years of age. Pedagogical Seminary and Journal of Genetic Psychology, 36, 140-171.

Stinchfield, S. (1929). Changing voice and speech standards. Journal of Expression, 3, 50-54.

Stinchfield, S. (1930). The social psychology of stuttering. Journal of Expression, 4, 47-50.

Stinchfield, S. & Potts, Wilma (1931). Speech and personality ratings. American Speech, 7, 130-141. (A study of self-ratings given by groups of students of dramatics from the Curry School of Expression, Pennsylvania State College, and Mount Holyoke, 1929-1930.)

Stinchfield, S. (1932). Some impressions of the tretment of speech disorders in Europe. In Proceedings of the American Society for the Study of Disorders of Speech, 2, 35-43.

Stinchfield, S. (1932). Speech tests and their uses. In W. Arthur Cable (Ed.) A program of speech education in a democracy. Boston: Expression Co.

Stinchfield, S. (1935). Binaural hearing and delayed speech development. Harvard Teachers Record, 5, 41-49.

Stinchfield, S. (1935). Auditory deficiency and delayed speech. National Education Association Proceedings, 489.

Hawk, S. S. (1936) Speech defects in handicapped children. Journal of Speech Disorders, 1, 101-106.

Hawk, S.S. (1937). Moto-kinaesthetic speech training for children. Journal of Speech Disorders, 2, 231-237.

Hawk, S.S. (1937). Speech defects in handicapped children. Journal of Speech Disorders, 1, 101-106.

Hawk, S.S. (1937). Review of H. Koepp-Baker: A handbook of clinical speech, Journal of Speech Disorders, 2, 238.

Stinchfield, S. (1937). Childhood speech development. Los Angeles School Journal, 20, 8-9+.

Hawk, S.S. (1938). Does the intelligence quotient change with speech training? Western Speech, 2, 1, 4.

Hawk, S.S. (1939). The year 1938 in speech correction. Journal of Speech Disorders, 4, 87-95.

Hawk, S.S. (1939). Can a child be taught to talk? Journal of Speech Disorders, 4, 2, 173-179.

Hawk, S.S. (1941). The speech clinician and community service. Journal of Speech Disorders, 6, 4, 131-136.

Ingram, C., Pintner, R. & Stinchfield-Hawk, S. (1941) The auditorily and the speech handicapped. Review of Educational Research, 11, 3., 297-314.

Hawk, S.S. (1942). Moto-kinaesthetic training for children with speech handicaps, Journal of Speech Disorders, 7, 4, 357-360.

Hawk, S.S. (1949). Personality measurement in speech correction. Journal of Speech Disorders, 13, 307-312.

There may be a motion picture done by Stinchfield Hawk on the origins of speech disorders and difficulties in childhood. Does anyone know of this? It is listed under her biography in American Women: The standard biographical dictionary of memorable women, Vol III, 1939-1940, p.391.)