Dept. of Architecture

ARC 564: Architecture and Society

Instructor: Edward Steinfeld



Example Cognitive Maps

Duncan, Susana, Mental Maps of New York. New York, Dec. 19, 1977; research conducted by Stanley Milgram.

1. Feature Maps

ny1b.jpg (47883 bytes) This map has a lot of written description in addition to key landmarks.  Notice that this individual included much more than just Manhattan - New Jersey and all the boroughs.  The rivers, tunnels  and bridges are prominent as is Central Park.  Midtown is labeled very large and the distinctive form of the G.W. Bridge is rendered.  A few streets are shown.

Drawn by John, a 29 year old resident of the Upper West Side who is a writer.  

ny2b.jpg (53487 bytes) This map includes both two and  three dimensional images.  The focus is on the the east side and the area surrounding Central Park. Not much else is shown.  Locations of features are very inaccurate beyond the park and East Side. 

Drawn by Madeline, a public relations executive who lives on the Upper East Side.

ny3.jpg (51086 bytes) This map is focused on the island of Manhattan and is color coded.  Some of the bridges are included but not all and no tunnels.  Only the edge of Brooklyn is shown and the rivers look like the ocean.   Boats figure prominently.  Several key streets are shown but mostly crosstown.


Drawn by Susan, 35 year old painter who lived on the Upper West Side.

ny4.jpg (29714 bytes) This is a very localized map showing a limited area of Harlem with some major landmarks like the Statue of Liberty and Central Park located in their relative position.  A detailed rendering of an intersection and streetscape is included. Only the Harlem River is shown.   Co-op apartment buildings along FDR Drive are also included. 


Drawn by Cynthia, 40+ teacher who lives in Harlem.

ny5.jpg (44625 bytes) Very accurate and complete map of Manhattan below the north boundary of Central Park including streets, landmarks, rivers, bridges tunnels.  The edges of Queens and Brooklyn are included.  Drawn in color and with some three dimensional elements. 


Drawn by Mary, a 21 year old free lance designer who lives in Brooklyn Heights.

2. Evaluation Map

fear2.jpg (128712 bytes) This map is a compilation of results of a question asking about the places in new York that residents  fear the most.


1. Harlem
2. South Bronx
3. Lower East Side
4. Times Square
5. Bedford-Stuyvestant
6. Central Park
7. Upper West Side
8. East Village
9. West Side in general
10. Spanish Harlem
11. Greenwhich Village
12. Morningside Heights
13. Upper East Side
14. Bowery
14. 42nd Street
16. Bronx
17. Brooklyn
18. Port Authority Station
19. Wall Street
20. 14th Street

3.  Another type of Evaluation Data

Milgram asked his respondents to name secret beauty spots in the City.  These are some of the ones they reported.

sec1.jpg (15103 bytes) Sniffen Court in Mid Manhattan
hidden2.jpg (26634 bytes) Crocheron Park in Queens
hidden3.jpg (36367 bytes) Albemarle Terrace in Brooklyn
sec4.jpg (12111 bytes) Douglas Manor in Queens

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Last revised 10/23/98 09:31 AM

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