physical volcanology: processes, experiments
explosive and non-explosive magma-water interaction, explosive volcanic processes, volcanic mass flows, magma physics, heat transfer, molten fuel coolant interaction (MFCI), thermal granulation

Experiments on crater and diatreme formation

Experiments creating meter scale maar-diatreme subsurface structures to investigate their formation processes.
See more on the projects VHub page.

Explosive Magma-Water Interaction

Setup of a molten fuel coolant (MFCI) based explosive magma-water interaction experiment.


G. A. Valentine & I. Sonder, 2018: Facilitating Field-Scale Experiments in Volcano Hazards. Eos, 99, doi: 10.1029/2018eo109237 .

I. Sonder, A. G. Harp, A. H. Graettinger, P. Moitra, G. A. Valentine, R. Büttner & B. Zimanowski, 2018: Meter-Scale Experiments on Magma-Water Interaction. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 1, doi: 10.1029/2018jb015682 .

P. Johnson, G. A. Valentine, P. H. Stauffer, C. S. Lowry, I. Sonder, B. A. Pulgarín, C. C. Santacoloma & A. Agudelo, 2018: Groundwater drainage from fissures as a source for lahars. Bull. Volcanol., 80, doi: 10.1007/s00445-018-1214-4 .

P. Moitra, I. Sonder & G. A. Valentine, 2018: Effects of size and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity on the cooling of pyroclasts in air. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 19, doi: 10.1029/2018GC007510 .

G. A. Valentine, J. D. L. White, P.‑S. Ross, A. H. Graettinger & I. Sonder, 2017: Updates to Concepts on Phreatomagmatic Maar-Diatremes and Their Pyroclastic Deposits. Front. Earth Sci., 5, doi: 10.3389/feart.2017.00068 .

A. H. Graettinger, G. A. Valentine & I. Sonder, 2016: Recycling in debris-filled volcanic vents. Geology, doi: 10.1130/G38081.1 .

B. Oddsson, M. T. Gudmundsson, I. Sonder, B. Zimanowski & A. Schmid, 2016: Experimental studies of heat transfer at the dynamic magma ice/water interface, application to subglacially emplaced lava. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, doi: 10.1002/2016JB012865 .

É. Macorps, A. H. Graettinger, G. A. Valentine, P.‑S. Ross, J. D. L. White & I. Sonder, 2016: The effects of the host-substrate properties on maar-diatreme volcanoes: experimental evidence. Bull. Volcanol., 78, doi: 10.1007/s00445-016-1013-8 .

A. H. Graettinger, G. A. Valentine & I. Sonder, 2015: Circum-crater variability of deposits from discrete, laterally and vertically migrating volcanic explosions: experimental evidence and field implications. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 308, doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.019 .

A. H. Graettinger, G. A. Valentine, I. Sonder, P.‑S. Ross & J. D. L. White, 2015: Facies distribution of ejecta in analog tephra rings from experiments with single and multiple subsurface explosions. Bull. Volcanol., 77, doi: 10.1007/s00445-015-0951-x .

G. A. Valentine, A. H. Graettinger, É. Macorps, P.‑S. Ross, J. D. L. White, É. Döhring & I. Sonder, 2015: Experiments with vertically and laterally migrating subsurface explosions with applications to the geology of phreatomagmatic and hydrothermal explosion craters and diatremes. Bull. Volcanol., 77, doi: 10.1007/s00445-015-0901-7 .

I. Sonder, A. H. Graettinger & G. A. Valentine, 2015: Scaling multiblast craters: general approach and application to volcanic craters. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 120, doi: 10.1002/2015JB012018 .

A. H. Graettinger, G. A. Valentine, I. Sonder, P.‑S. Ross, J. D. L. White & J. Taddeucci, 2014: Maar-diatreme geometry and deposits: Subsurface blast experiments with variable explosion depth. Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., 15, doi: 10.1002/2013GC005198 .

D. C. Bowman, J. Taddeucci, K. Kim, J. F. Anderson, J. M. Lees, A. H. Graettinger, I. Sonder & G. A. Valentine, 2014: The acoustic signatures of ground acceleration, gas expansion, and spall fallback in experimental volcanic explosions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi: 10.1002/2014GL059324 .

G. A. Valentine, A. H. Graettinger & I. Sonder, 2014: Explosion depths for phreatomagmatic eruptions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi: 10.1002/2014GL060096 .

P. Dellino, F. Dioguardi, D. Mele, M. D’Addabbo, B. Zimanowski, R. Büttner, D. Doronzo, I. Sonder, R. Sulpizio, T. Dürig & L. La Volpe, 2014: Volcanic jets, plumes, and collapsing fountains: evidence from large-scale experiments, with particular emphasis on the entrainment rate. Bull. Volcanol., 76, doi: 10.1007/s00445-014-0834-6 .

C. I. Schipper, I. Sonder, A. Schmid, J. D. L. White, T. Dürig, B. Zimanowski & R. Büttner, 2013: Vapour dynamics during magma-water interaction experiments: Hydromagmatic origins of submarine volcaniclastic particles (limu o Pele). Geophys. J. Int., 192, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggs099 .

I. Sonder, A. H. Graettinger & G. A. Valentine, 2013: Large-Scale Blast Experiments Examine Subsurface Explosions. Eos, 94, doi: 10.1002/2013EO39 .

J. Taddeucci, G. A. Valentine, I. Sonder, J. D. L. White, P.‑S. Ross & P. Scarlato, 2013: The effect of pre-existing craters on the initial development of explosive volcanic eruptions: an experimental investigation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi: 10.1002/grl.50176 .

P.‑S. Ross, J. D. L. White, G. A. Valentine, J. Taddeucci, I. Sonder & R. G. Andrews, 2013: Experimental birth of a maar-diatreme volcano. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 260, doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.05.005 .

G. A. Valentine, J. D. L. White, P.‑S. Ross, J. Amin, J. Taddeucci, I. Sonder & P. J. Johnson, 2012: Experimental craters formed by single and multiple buried explosions and implications for maar-diatreme volcanoes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, doi: 10.1029/2012GL053716 .

T. Dürig, I. Sonder, B. Zimanowski, H. Beyrichen & R. Büttner, 2012: Generation of volcanic ash by basaltic volcanism. J. Geophys. Res., 117, doi: 10.1029/2011JB008628 .

C. I. Schipper, J. D. L. White, B. Zimanowski, R. Büttner, I. Sonder & A. Schmid, 2011: Experimental interaction of magma and "dirty" coolants. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 303, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.01.010 .

I. Sonder, A. Schmid, R. Seegelken, B. Zimanowski & R. Bütner, 2011: Heat source or heat sink: What dominates behavior of non-explosive magma-water interaction?. J. Geophys. Res., 116, doi: 10.1029/2011JB008280 .

M. Hobiger, I. Sonder, R. Büttner & B. Zimanowski, 2011: Viscosity characteristics of selected volcanic rock melts. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 200, doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.11.020 .

A. Schmid, I. Sonder, R. Seegelken, B. Zimanowski, R. Büttner, M. T. Gudmundsson & B. Oddsson, 2010: Experiments on the heat discharge at the dynamic magma-water-interface. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, doi: 10.1029/2010GL044963 .

P. Dellino, F. Dioguardi, B. Zimanowski, R. Büttner, D. Mele, L. L. Volpe, R. Sulpizio, D. M. Doronzo, I. Sonder, R. Bonasia, S. Calvari & E. Marotta, 2010: Conduit flow experiments help constraining the regime of explosive eruptions. J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi: 10.1029/2009JB006781 .

P. Dellino, R. Büttner, F. Dioguardi, D. M. Doronzo, L. L. Volpe, D. Mele, I. Sonder, R. Sulpizio & B. Zimanowski, 2010: Experimental evidence links volcanic particle characteristics to pyroclastic flow hazard. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 295, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.04.022 .

I. Sonder, R. Büttner & B. Zimanowski, 2006: Non-Newtonian Viscosity of Basaltic Magma. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024240 .

R. Büttner, P. Dellino, H. Raue, I. Sonder & B. Zimanowski, 2006: Stress Induced Brittle Fragmentation of Magmatic Melts: Theory and Experiments. J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi: 10.1029/2005JB003958 .

Address & Contact

Ingo Sonder
Center for Geohazards Studies, Department of Geology
State University of New York
463 Hochstetter Hall
Buffalo, NY 14260 USA

phone: +1 716 645 6366