Erika Bellingham

PhD Student

Department of Linguistics :: University at Buffalo


Interests: Pragmatics, semantics, construction grammar, semantic typology, event semantics, language production models

  • Event categories and typicality: what expectations do we have about the participants and properties of particular event categories? How do speakers communicate that a particular event deviates from what we expect for that category?
  • Modeling the availability of constructions and lexical items, and how this availability affects linguistic choices
  • How do codeability and inter-speaker consistency relate to accessibility?
  • What sort of constructions are highly available given particular situations, and what sort of meaning do they convey (truth-conditional meaning vs implicature)?
  • For situations with less inter-speaker consistency, what do the choices speakers make have in common? What can this tell us about the mapping from communicative intent/situation to construction/lexical choice?

Causality Across Languages

Under the supervision of PI Juergen Bohnemeyer, I am a research assistant on the Causality Across Languages (CAL) project. CAL investigates the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic properties of verbal representations of causal chains across different languages.

Presentations & Publications

Refereed papers

Bellingham, E., H. Beck & R. Hatcher. (Under review). A discourse model for Undirected Speculation. In M. Kirner-Ludwig (ed.), New waves in Pragmatics.

Bellingham, E., Evers, S., Kawachi, K., Mitchell, A., Park, S., Stepanova, A., & J. Bohnemeyer. (In press). Exploring the representation of causality across languages: integrating production, comprehension and conceptualization perspectives. In E. Siegal & N. Boneh (eds.), Papers from Linguistic perspectives on causation. Springer.

Bellingham, E. (2019). Complex event representation in a typed feature structure implementation of Role and Reference Grammar. Computing Semantics with Types, Frames and Related Structures: Workshop at the 13th International Conference on Computational Semantics. Gothenburg, Sweden, 23-27 May, 2019. [Link]

Kawachi, K., S. Park & E. Bellingham. (2019). Directness of causation and morpho-syntactic complexity of constructions: Japanese and Korean cases. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Vol. 26. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

Kawachi, K., E. Bellingham & J. Bohnemeyer. (2018). Different types of causality and clause linkage in English, Japanese, Sidaama, and Yucatec Maya. Papers from the 18th National Conference of the Japanese Cognitive Linguistics Association.

Evers, S., E. Bellingham, K. Donelson, J. Du, J. A. Jódar Sánchez, F. Li, & J. Bohnemeyer. (2017). The role of intentionality in causal attribution is culturally mediated: Evidence from Chinese, Mayan, and Spanish populations. The 39th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. London, UK, 26-29 July 2017.[Link]

Refereed presentations and posters

Bellingham, E. (2019). Integrating event descriptions in multi-predicate constructions: frame semantics and construal in the English means construction. 15th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Nishinomiya, Japan, 6-11 August, 2019.

Kawachi, K., E. Bellingham, S. Park & J. Bohnemeyer (2019). Iconicity in usage: A cross-linguistic study of causative event descriptions. 15th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Nishinomiya, Japan, 6-11 August, 2019.

Bellingham, E. (2019). Does description complexity vary with respect to event typicality? A corpus approach. 2nd Annual Buffalo-Toronto Workshop on Linguistic Perspectives on Variation Within and Across Languages. Toronto, Canada, 16 March, 2019.

Bellingham, E., H. Beck & R. Hatcher. (2018). A discourse model for undirected speculation. 4th International Conference of the American Pragmatics Association. Albany, USA, 1-3 November, 2018.

Bellingham, E., S. Evers, K. Kawachi, A. Mitchell & J. Bohnemeyer. (2017). An experimental approach to the semantic typology of causative constructions. 12th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology. Canberra, Australia, 12-14 December 2017.

Bellingham, E., S. Park, J. Bohnemeyer, A. Stepanova & K. Kawachi. (2017) Causality in Discourse: Cross-linguistic Patterns. 15th International Pragmatics Conference. Special session: Linguistic Expressions and Devices that Yield the Implicature of Cause and Effect. Belfast, UK, 16-21 July 2017.

Kawachi, K., & E. Bellingham. (2017) Japanese juncture-nexus types used for different causality types. Role and Reference Grammar Conference 2017. Tokyo, Japan. 1 August, 2017.

Kawachi, K., E. Bellingham & J. Bohnemeyer. (2017). Different types of causality and clause linkage in English, Japanese, Sidaama, and Yucatec Maya. 18th Japanese Cognitive Linguistics Association Conference. Osaka, Japan. 16 September, 2017.


Scripts, links and other useful thingamawhatzits

A list of software (in no particular order) that I rely on regularly, with some useful one-liners.

Command line tools

  • ffmpeg: Convert audio and video formats
    • Add a black frame to the end of a video: ffmpeg -i INPUT.mp4 -f lavfi -i color=s=DIMENSIONxDIMENSION:d=LENGTHINSECONDS -filter_complex [0:v][1]concat -af [0]apad -shortest OUTPUT.mp4
  • imageMagick: Convert image formats
  • tesseract: OCR images and PDFs
  • anaconda: Manage Python installations in multiple environments
  • homebrew: Package manager for Mac

Browser based tools


You can email me at ebelling at buffalo dot edu!