Clara Brinkerhoff

Clara Brinkerhoff, whose main expertise was as a music teacher, also provided an anatomically based treatment for stuttering. She described the cause of stuttering as follows: "the spinal, respiratory, and contractile nerves, muscles of involuntary motion, are sure to be at fault.a lack of cooperation of the organic nerves-respiratory and motory."

Brinkerhoff, C. (1880). The vocal machinery: How to train it correctly with hints on the cure of stammering. The Voice, 2, #3, p. 50.

Brinkerhoff, C. (1880). The Brinkerhoff Method for singing. The Voice, 2, #3, p. 64.

Brinkerhoff, C. (1881). A case of stuttering. The Voice, 3, #11, p. 170).