WHAT IS SCIENCE? (Marc Micozzi, MD, PhD)
simply requires empiricism - making and testing of models of reality by
what can be observed, guided by certain values, and based upon certain
itself is not reality but a system of human knowledge. Scientific
models are models of reality constructed through human intellectual
biomedicine is a scientific paradigm characterized by:
- objectivism - the observer is separate from the
- reductionism - complex phenomena are explainable in
terms of component phenomena.
- positivism - all information can be derived from
physically measurable data.
- determinism - phenomena can be predicted from a
knowledge of scientific law and initial conditions.
- At a
certain level, health and illness, life and death, are mysteries. Science
can explain the outward manifestations of mysteries, but cannot explain
the mystery itself. Thus, medicine will always remain an art.
PHYSICS IN THE 20TH CENTURY
Planck - 1900 - formulated quantum theory which states that energy such as
light is composed of tiny irreducible bits of energy called quanta. E=hv, where h is Planck's
constant and v is vibrations/second. This implies that radiation has both
wave and particle properties.
in 1913 expanded upon quantum theory, hypothesizing that electrons revolve
around the nucleus in fixed orbits. When the electron jumps from one orbit
to another, a discreet unit of energy is either radiated or absorbed, and
this energy appears as light waves if emitted.
- 1905 - formulated special theory of relativity, rewriting Newton's Laws of
Motion. Matter and energy are interchangeable, with E=mc2 where
c is the speed of light. Furthermore, the mass of an object changes with
its velocity. In 1916, Einstein proposed a general theory of relativity
and then in 1929 a Unified Field Theory, which combined gravitational and
electromagnetic equations in a single theory. This theory implies
that time and space are inseparable and that time is relative, not linear.
Physics - 1924 - it appears that electrons display the complementary
behaviors of both waves and particles simultaneously. In other words, all
matter is really frozen, particularized energy fields (i.e. frozen light).
Just as light has particular frequencies, so does matter. Matter is a
culturally constructed concept. If all matter in the human body were
collapsed together, the resulting volume would be less than a grain of
Uncertainty Principle - 1927 - what can be known about atomic
particles depends on what observers choose to measure (i.e. electrons
position in space and velocity cannot be simultaneously measured with high
precision). Extrapolation - physical properties are not independent of the
minds of scientists measuring them (throw out objectivism).
theorem - 1964 - two particles, once in contact, separated even to the
ends of the Universe, change instantaneously when a change occurs in one
of them. This provides a theoretic rationale for the effects of
- theory of dissipative structures (Nobel Prize in 1977) - the second Law
of Thermodynamics can remain valid for the Universe as a whole, yet fail
in certain local parts. This is consistent with the observation that
life processes contradict the second Law of Thermodynamics.
THREE ERAS OF MEDICINE (Dr. Larry Dossey)
- Era I
- mechanistic view of nature and man, based on theories developed by
Descartes in the 1600's; coincides with the physics of Galileo, Kepler, and Newton. It was derived through
focusing on the inanimate world, not life. Body and mind are
considered separate; body affects mind, but mind never affects body.
II - recognizes the interconnection of the body and the mind, and parallels
the physics of Einstein. The whole (i.e. consciousness) is more than the
sum of its parts.
III - concept that recognizes Universal Mind, and regards mind as primary,
collective, and non-local; corresponds to "meaning physics".
healing power of nature. Using the words of Hippocrates, Vis Medicratrix Naturae.
above, so below."
ENERGY MEDICINE AS PART OF CONVENTIONAL MEDICINE
then CT Scans for diagnosis of abnormalities. Roentgen discovered X-rays
in 1895. This allowed us to extend our vision into a new frequency realm.
Therapy for treatment of cancer.
for treatment of intractable pain syndromes--TENS units and Dorsal Column
Stimulators, designed by Dr. Norman Shealy,
devices to accelerate healing of bone fractures, based upon the research
of orthopedist Dr. Robert Becker, who found that the ability of
salamanders to re-grow limbs after amputation was related to a measurable
reverse in polarity to a negative potential. When Becker artificially
delivered a negative potential across a frogs healing stump, the frog
would grow a new limb too. This healing system in salamanders seems to
involve glial and Schwann cells.
Scans allow visualization of living tissue based upon the magnetic
properties of protons, such as hydrogen atoms in water.
Scans, which involve merging technology in nuclear medicine with
technology in computerized tomography, now allow us to gather information
on the functioning of the heart and brain based on the use of
radioactively labeled compounds such as glucose.
studies conducted at Sniadecki Hospital
show benefit from high-frequency magnetic fields in treatment of
rheumatoid and degenerative arthritis.
are used widely in Japan
for all sorts of "therapeutic" indications.
HOLOGRAPHY AS A NEW MODEL OF REALITY
light is a special type of light known as coherent light (light with all
the waves moving in step).
is the study of pictures produced by using laser light to illuminate
hologram is made by sending a single laser beam through an optical devise
called a beam splitter. After the beam splitter, one of the beams, the
reference beam, passes through a diffusing lens that spreads out the beam.
The reference beam is then directed by mirrors to fall upon an unexposed
photographic plate. Meanwhile, the second beam, the working beam, passes
through a diffusing lens, illuminates the object being photographed, then
bounces off of the object and onto the same photographic plate.
hologram on the photographic plate is an energy interference pattern.
the holographic film is viewed with illumination from laser light, the
object photographed is revealed with all its 3-dimensional
if the holographic film is cut into many pieces, each piece when
illuminated by laser light will reveal a smaller size whole object.
the energy interference pattern, every piece contains information on the
whole (this is called the holographic principle).
fact that every cell within the body contains the information (i.e. DNA)
to create an entire duplicate mirrors the holographic principle. "As
above, so below".
whole universe may be a tremendous hologram; the selective focusing of
consciousness via psychic attunement may hold the potential for decoding
the universal hologram.
KIRLIAN PHOTOGRAPHY (1940's)
technique whereby living objects are photographed in the presence of a
high frequency, high voltage, low amperage electrical field.
technique creates a corona discharge, whereby electrons stream from the
object to a photographic plate.
colors appear around the living object, and are felt to represent the energy
field which extends beyond the body.
in the 1940's at Yale, used conventional voltmeter and found evidence of microvoltage levels around living objects, providing
additional evidence for energy fields that extend beyond the living
and Kirlian found that diseases like cancer
caused significant changes in the electromagnetic fields of living
- If the
upper third of a leaf is cut off and destroyed and the remaining leaf
fragment is then photographed using Kirlian
photography technique, the photograph reveals an intact, whole leaf.
metaphysical literature, the energy field that surrounds and penetrates
living systems is referred to as the etheric
concept of the etheric body provides us with an
explanation for an unknown in the field of embryology - it explains how
each cell in the developing fetus travels to the correct location. The etheric body is a holographic energy field that
carries information not only for growth and development, but also repair
of the physical body. (This concept would suggest that biological
information is not stored just in DNA but also in electromagnetic fields,
and this is a paradigm shift!)
ACUPUNCTURE AND THE PHYSICAL-ETHERIC INTERFACE
- It is
an acknowledged principle within physics that energy of different
frequencies can co-exist within the same space without destructive
interaction. For example, the electromagnetic energies of all radio and
television stations peacefully co-exist in our homes at all times; we can
tune into anyone of these slightly different frequencies by using a
channel changer with a TV or radio.
same principle would suggest that our physical matter and etheric matter co-exist in the same space.
Furthermore, acupuncture meridians seem to provide an interface between
physical and etheric matter.
is hypothesized to work by redirecting the flow of Qi,
vital energy, within the body.
in rabbits in the 1960's by Professor Kim Bong Han in Korea
demonstrated by the use of microautoradiography
that radioactive P32 injected into acupoints was
taken up by a fine duct-like tubule system which followed classical
recent studies by Pierre de Vernejoul in France
using radioactive technetium 99m in humans shows that if injected at classical
acupuncture points, it travels up to 30cm in 4 - 6 minutes, whereas if
injected at random points on the skin, it travels a much shorter distance.
measurements by researchers demonstrate a nearly 20-fold drop in
electrical resistance at acupoints.
CHAKRAS AND ENERGY FLOW WITHIN THE BODY
texts from India
refer to seven chakras, or energy centers, in the human body.
each major chakra is associated with a major nerve plexus and major
a physiologic standpoint, the chakras seem to function as energy
transformers, stepping down energy to a lower energy level so that the
energy can be translated into hormonal changes. Energy from the chakras is
delivered throughout the body by a network of meridians.
research by Dr. Hiroshi Motoyama in Japan
tends to confirm the presence of a chakra system in human beings. Using
subjects who were advanced meditators or
individuals with a previous history of psychic experience, and using a
special lead-lined recording booth that was electrically shielded from
outside electromagnetic disturbance, he found that when an electrode was
placed in front of a chakra that the subject claimed had been awakened,
the amplitude and frequency of the electric field over that chakra was
significantly greater than the energy recorded from the chakras of control
and shiatsu are healing modalities which are hypothesized to work through
the chakra system.
- Root color
is red associated with spinal column and kidneys
- Sacral color
is orange associated with reproductive system
plexus color is yellow associated
with adrenal glands, digestive organs, and nervous system
- Heart color is green associated
with thymus and circulatory system
- Throat color is sky blue associated with thyroid, vocal
cords and respiratory system
- Head color is indigo associated with pituitary, left
eye, ears, and autonomic nervous system
- Crown color is violet/white associated with central nervous
system and right eye
of years old, but systematized by Hahnemann MD, in the early 1800's.
upon the principle that like cures like and that infinitesimal doses are
more potent than less dilute doses.
are derived from observation, with Hahnemann observing that cinchona, the
treatment of choice for malaria, produced symptoms of malaria when he
ingested multiple doses.
and researchers after him ingested hundreds of different plant, mineral,
and animal extracts and carefully documented all of the symptoms produced
by each one. Dilutions of each and every one were then prepared in order
to treat the symptom complex in ill people identical to the symptom
complex produced by the full strength extract.
practice, the practitioner takes a detailed history from the patient and
chooses a remedy based on the history, often using either computers or
charts to assist in the choice of the best remedy.
remedies are prepared by a technique called succession, which involves
serial dilutions and vigorous shaking at each step. In the U.S., the
remedies are regulated by the FDA.
dilutions are more dilute than Avogadro's limit of 6.02 x 1023,
which means that biochemically they are nothing but water.
it is hypothesized that there are biophysical changes in the water, and
that each remedy has a unique vibrational
frequency. It is further hypothesized that if the vibrational
frequency of the remedy is matched to the vibrational
frequency of a given ill person, that the ill person can eliminate the
illness more quickly (after an initial worsening of the symptoms induced
by the remedy), and return to good health and the different vibrational frequency associated with good health.
Homeopathic theory suggests that humans, from an energetic standpoint, are
like the electrons of an atom (As above, so below). Furthermore,
homeopathic theory suggests that ones symptoms represent the bodies
attempt to return to equilibrium.
we look at nature, the snow flake provides us with an example in which
each snowflake is biochemically identical as water, but each is
biophysically unique in terms of shape.
done at McGill University in Montreal by Dr. Bernard Grad in the 1960's
showed that healer-treated water showed significant changes by infrared
spectroscopy analysis due to a shift in the atomic bond angle.
Furthermore, there was decreased hydrogen bonding between water molecules
in healer treated water. This provides experimental support for the
theoretical basis of homeopathy.
clinical trials reported in the peer-review medical literature demonstrate
that homeopathic remedies work better than placebo for allergic asthma
symptoms (Lancet. 1994. 344.
1601-1606) and for pediatric diarrhea (Pediatrics.
1994. 93. 719-725).
BACH FLOWER ESSENCES
are prepared by collecting the morning dew from flowers exposed to
sunlight and are hypothesized to contain the vital energy of the plant
from which they are derived.
current information on Bach Flower essences has been intuitively
derived--channeled information suggests they are most useful in balancing
the nervous system and in treating disorders which manifest at an
to exert their effects through a unique biocrystalline
energy system within the physical body which has certain properties
similar to quartz. This same system is postulated to coordinate
information transfer from higher dimensional aspects of conscious, often
in the form of dreams, to the physical personality by way of a link with
the pineal gland in the brain via the right cerebral hemisphere.
elixirs prepared by placing one or several gems of a particular crystalline
nature into pure spring or distilled water placed in direct sunlight for
several hours, also exert their effects through the bodies biocrystalline system, as do color tinctures prepared
by placing distilled water in direct sunlight in either a bottle of
colored glass or in a glass bottle wrapped with colored plastic.
in 1972 by Delores Krieger, RN, PhD.
on the theory that living objects are a 4-dimensional energy system that
extends beyond the skin boundaries and that disease is due to the
disturbance in energy flow.
technique involves centering, a conscious meditative act; assessment of
the energy system using the hands as sensors; and energy transfer using
the hands to re-establish wholeness. It does not require physical touch.
studies with Mr. Estebany (the healer used in
Dr. Grad's studies at McGill) which did involve hands-on-healing showed a
significant rise in hemoglobin in an experimental group of 46 patients,
compared to a control group of 33 patients.
- In a
subsequent study using 32 RNs trained in therapeutic touch, the 16
patients in the experimental group had a statistically significant
increase in hemoglobin, whereas the 16 patients in the control group had
no change in hemoglobin. [American Journal of Nursing, 1975, 75.784-787]
This leads us to conclude that therapeutic touch is a natural human
research showed a 70% decrease in tension headache pain, sustained over
four hours, with therapeutic touch, as compared with 50% in placebo
(p<0.01). In this study, for the control group, the practitioner went
through the motions of assessment and transfer without centering (Nursing Research. 1986. 35.
Touch is just one form of hand-mediated energetic healing, with other
forms including polarity, reike, shiatsu,
acupressure, reflexology, and external qigong (Micozzi,
Fundamentals of Alternative and
Complementary Medicine, Chapter 9).
- The etheric body - energy system which surrounds and
penetrates living systems.
astral body - theorized in Eastern and esoteric literature to be the seat
of human emotions and composed of subtle matter with even higher energy frequencies
than etheric matter. Hypothesized too as the
vehicle of the consciousness.
itself is a kind of energy that is integrally related to the cellular
expression of the physical body; consciousness participates in the
continuous creation of either health or illness.
concept of the astral body can explain the phenomenon of near death
experience whereby individuals who are successfully resuscitated report a
sensation of floating above their physical bodies and looking down while
being drawn upwards to a light at the end of a tunnel. Some researchers
have measured changes in air pressure in the room at the time of death.
of body experiences can be regarded as astral projection - projection of
ones consciousness to a distant locale. This phenomenon is described by
the author of Autobiography of a
Yoga. Near death experience may be considered a traumatic out of body
mental and causal bodies are at even higher frequencies than the etheric and astral bodies - these are related in
theory to reincarnation.
UNITY (Larry Dossey, M.D.)
- Biodance - endless exchange of elements of living
things with the earth.
in a given person, while the pattern of the gene does not change, the
stuff of the gene (i.e. individual atoms) is in constant exchange with the
outside world through the act of breathing.
just atoms, but sometimes whole molecules can be exchanged between
organisms (i.e. plasmids in bacteria).
is a double helix.
systems are present throughout the plant and animal world (as above, so
ENERGY MEDICINE TODAY AND IN THE FUTURE
Gerber, MD, defines Vibrational Medicine as
methods which attempt to heal illness and transform human consciousness by
working with energetic patterns that guide the physical expressions of
may be considered electrical devises which produce magnetism - we have an
inner circulating core containing iron (hemoglobin) and electrical
activity generated predominantly by the heart and the brain (EKG and EEG
the glow produced by some materials, in the presence of electricity, may
be the basis for the human aura.
is the capacity to do work, and the energy can be converted into
information (i.e. television).
absorbs information from its electromagnetic environment (and this may
imply epigenetic heredity).
at the Heartmath Institute demonstrates that
coherent electrocardiogram spectra accompany the feeling of love, and
these can modulate DNA. Furthermore, these coherent spectra can affect the
EEG (i.e. the brain) which in turn may alter immune and endocrine
function. As Bernie Siegel, MD, says, "Love Heals".
systems may be defined as dynamic organizations of intelligent information
expressed in energy and in matter, as integrated wholes whose essential
properties emerge from the dynamical relationship between its parts
Cardiology as derived from systems theory (Advances. 1996. 12. 4-24.).
are expressions of organized energy and they emit energy.
heart is a dynamical energy generating system; it pumps energy to the
rest of the body via volume conduction in the water which constitutes
approximately 60% of our total body weight.
EKG, which can be recorded anywhere on the body, measures the electrical
energy emitted by the heart.
activates and may regulate systems interactively.
heart may energetically regulate all cells in the body to a certain
degree, such as the conductor of an orchestra.
heart may play a role in human consciousness.
may arise from heart as well as from the brain.
energies are emitted simultaneously (ex. the sun and the electromagnetic
heart generates electrical, magnetic, sound, pressure, temperature, and
energies travel at different speeds via volume conduction in the body,
and may regulate cells sequentially (analogy is light of lightning,
sound of thunder, and pressure change which follows sequentially).
is transmitted between systems dynamically and interactively.
electromagnetic energy emitted by the heart travels beyond the surface
of the skin, and may have interpersonal and environmental effects.
may have implications for healing in the doctor - patient relationship.
of consciousness may interact with patterns of energy.
ancient notion of the heart as the seat of the soul may be based on the
fact that the heart emits the greatest magnitude of magnetic energy in the
body (the brain emits the greatest magnitude of electrical activity).
the future, crystals such as quartz may be used to augment vibrational healing, and radiologists may use an EMR
scanner to detect energy field disturbances.
HEALING THROUGH SPIRITUALITY AND PRAYER
is a link between the physical body, mind, and spirit. Meditation is based
upon breath awareness - breathing is the bridge between our conscious and
unconscious minds. In many languages such as Sanskrit, Greek, Hebrew, and
Latin, the words for spirit and breath are the same.
- At an
atomic level, breathing allows us to interact with the rest of the
Universe, based on the atoms of carbon and oxygen we breathe in and out.
Bernard Grad in research done at McGill University
in the 1960's showed that plants watered with healer treated water were of
greater height and chlorophyll content. (Magnet treated water had a
similar positive effects).
Smith showed that healers alter the rate of enzymatic reactions, with the
rate always altered in the direction best for cellular growth and
Smith found that healers could repair damaged enzymes, demonstrating that
healing energy has negative entropy.
mathematical equation (special theory of relativity) actually predicts the
existence of what Dr. William Tiller labels magnetoelectrical
energy which has the unique property of negative entropy and may travel at
1010 - 1020 the speed of light.
devices allow for the measurement of magnetoelectrical
energy fields, and these can be measured around healers.
done at the Spindrift Institute show that rye seeds stressed with addition
of salt water to the growth medium, then prayed for, grew statistically
significantly better, as did soy seeds. The results were more dramatic
with a longer length of prayer, and more dramatic with non-directional
words whole and holy come from the same Anglo-Saxon root. In many
cultures, religion and medicine have never been separate; religion is the
medicine of the soul, disease is the manifestation of evil in the body.
separated from religion in the 1600's because scientific knowledge (i.e.
the Scientific Revolution) threatened the worldview of the church. It is
ironic that new research linking the two threatens the current worldview
Herbert Benson found that when the deepest religious beliefs of people
were added to their daily meditation, that the positive outcomes were more
- In a
review of 200 studies looking for a linkage between religion and health,
75% revealed a positive relationship.
in which all other risk factors are controlled show that churchgoers have
a blood pressure which is 5mm Hg lower than non-churchgoers, half the risk
of dying from coronary artery disease, and lower rates of depression,
anxiety and suicide. Furthermore, religious coping is the biggest
predictor of recovery from depression.
1995 study at Dartmouth
found that one of the best predictors of survival among 232 heart-surgery patients
was the degree to which the patients drew comfort and strength from
religious faith (Psychosomatic
Medicine. 1995. 57. 5-15).
Randolph Byrd demonstrated the benefits of prayer in a human study (Southern Journal of Medicine. 1988;
81: 826-829). This would support the nonlocal
nature of the human mind.
randomized, controlled study of 393 patients admitted to the CCU. Neither
the patients nor the physicians caring for the patients knew which group
they were in. Statistical analysis showed that the groups were similar
experimental patients were prayed for by devout, Born-again Christians,
sometimes thousands of miles away, who were provided by phone with
biographical and clinical information on the patients for whom they were
instructed to pray.
control patients could naturally be prayed for by friends or family.
results showed a significantly lower severity of illness score based on
hospital course after entry in the experimental group, as well as less ventilatory assistance, less antibiotic usage and
less diuretic usage.
PUBLIC OPINION AND SPIRITUALITY (Time, 6/24/96
and Gallop Polls)
of Americans think of faith as important to health.
of Americans think faith has helped them.
of Americans think doctors should talk to them about spirit; only 10% say
that doctors have done so.
believe in healing with prayer.
think doctors should pray with patients if asked.
of Americans believe in God, and 52% pray daily.
PHYSICIANS AND SPIRITUALITY
and encourage spiritual practices.
your own spirit.
your healing nature.
patients to honor their disease.
the meaning of disease.
- It is
hypothesized that there are fewer geniuses in recent years because of the
specialization and subspecialization of
analogy, I believe that unless contemporary biomedicine as an institution
breaks free of the progressive narrowing of focus that seems to
characterize medical and postgraduate education and clinical practice, I
fear that physicians will be trapped in a mode that individually leaves
them less effective as healers, frustrated, and vulnerable to disease
themselves; and society will be at a disadvantage in terms of advancing
our understanding of ourselves and our universe.
INSTITUTE OF NOETIC SCIENCES
- “Noetic sciences” are the systematic and
scientific studies of consciousness.
feelings, dreams, spiritual insights, capacity for love, and ability to make
conscious choices are all subjects of investigation.
in 1973 by Apollo 14 astronaut Edgar Mitchell after he had a transcendent
experience on his way back to earth from the moon.
education, research and membership organization with 28,000 members in
- PO Box 7688; Petaluma, CA 94955-7688
DJ. Energy medicine for the internist. Med Clin North Am. 2002. 86(1). 105-125.
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