WHAT IS SCIENCE? (Marc Micozzi, MD, PhD)

  • Science simply requires empiricism - making and testing of models of reality by what can be observed, guided by certain values, and based upon certain metaphysical assumptions.
  • Science itself is not reality but a system of human knowledge.  Scientific models are models of reality constructed through human intellectual activity.
  • Contemporary biomedicine is a scientific paradigm characterized by:
    • objectivism - the observer is separate from the observed.
    • reductionism - complex phenomena are explainable in terms of component phenomena.
    • positivism - all information can be derived from physically measurable data.
    • determinism - phenomena can be predicted from a knowledge of scientific law and initial conditions.
  • At a certain level, health and illness, life and death, are mysteries. Science can explain the outward manifestations of mysteries, but cannot explain the mystery itself. Thus, medicine will always remain an art.



  • Max Planck - 1900 - formulated quantum theory which states that energy such as light is composed of tiny irreducible bits of energy called quanta. E=hv, where h is Planck's constant and v is vibrations/second. This implies that radiation has both wave and particle properties.
  • Bohr in 1913 expanded upon quantum theory, hypothesizing that electrons revolve around the nucleus in fixed orbits. When the electron jumps from one orbit to another, a discreet unit of energy is either radiated or absorbed, and this energy appears as light waves if emitted.
  • Einstein - 1905 - formulated special theory of relativity, rewriting Newton's Laws of Motion. Matter and energy are interchangeable, with E=mc2 where c is the speed of light. Furthermore, the mass of an object changes with its velocity. In 1916, Einstein proposed a general theory of relativity and then in 1929 a Unified Field Theory, which combined gravitational and electromagnetic equations in a single theory.  This theory implies that time and space are inseparable and that time is relative, not linear.
  • Particle Physics - 1924 - it appears that electrons display the complementary behaviors of both waves and particles simultaneously. In other words, all matter is really frozen, particularized energy fields (i.e. frozen light). Just as light has particular frequencies, so does matter. Matter is a culturally constructed concept. If all matter in the human body were collapsed together, the resulting volume would be less than a grain of sand.
  • Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle - 1927 -  what can be known about atomic particles depends on what observers choose to measure (i.e. electrons position in space and velocity cannot be simultaneously measured with high precision). Extrapolation - physical properties are not independent of the minds of scientists measuring them (throw out objectivism).
  • Bell's theorem - 1964 - two particles, once in contact, separated even to the ends of the Universe, change instantaneously when a change occurs in one of them.  This provides a theoretic rationale for the effects of distant prayer.
  • Prigogine - theory of dissipative structures (Nobel Prize in 1977) - the second Law of Thermodynamics can remain valid for the Universe as a whole, yet fail in certain local parts.  This is consistent with the observation that life processes contradict the second Law of Thermodynamics.



  • Era I - mechanistic view of nature and man, based on theories developed by Descartes in the 1600's; coincides with the physics of Galileo, Kepler, and Newton.  It was derived through focusing on the inanimate world, not life.  Body and mind are considered separate; body affects mind, but mind never affects body.
  • Era II - recognizes the interconnection of the body and the mind, and parallels the physics of Einstein. The whole (i.e. consciousness) is more than the sum of its parts.
  • Era III - concept that recognizes Universal Mind, and regards mind as primary, collective, and non-local; corresponds to "meaning physics".



  • The healing power of nature. Using the words of Hippocrates, Vis Medicratrix Naturae.
  • "As above, so below."



  • X-rays, then CT Scans for diagnosis of abnormalities. Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895. This allowed us to extend our vision into a new frequency realm.
  • Radiation Therapy for treatment of cancer.
  • Electricity for treatment of intractable pain syndromes--TENS units and Dorsal Column Stimulators, designed by Dr. Norman Shealy, neurosurgeon.
  • Electromagnetic devices to accelerate healing of bone fractures, based upon the research of orthopedist Dr. Robert Becker, who found that the ability of salamanders to re-grow limbs after amputation was related to a measurable reverse in polarity to a negative potential. When Becker artificially delivered a negative potential across a frogs healing stump, the frog would grow a new limb too. This healing system in salamanders seems to involve glial and Schwann cells.
  • MRI Scans allow visualization of living tissue based upon the magnetic properties of protons, such as hydrogen atoms in water.
  • PET Scans, which involve merging technology in nuclear medicine with technology in computerized tomography, now allow us to gather information on the functioning of the heart and brain based on the use of radioactively labeled compounds such as glucose.
  • Controlled studies conducted at Sniadecki Hospital in Wloszczowa, Poland show benefit from high-frequency magnetic fields in treatment of rheumatoid and degenerative arthritis.
  • Magnets are used widely in Japan for all sorts of "therapeutic" indications.



  • Laser light is a special type of light known as coherent light (light with all the waves moving in step).
  • Holography is the study of pictures produced by using laser light to illuminate subject matter.
  • A hologram is made by sending a single laser beam through an optical devise called a beam splitter. After the beam splitter, one of the beams, the reference beam, passes through a diffusing lens that spreads out the beam. The reference beam is then directed by mirrors to fall upon an unexposed photographic plate. Meanwhile, the second beam, the working beam, passes through a diffusing lens, illuminates the object being photographed, then bounces off of the object and onto the same photographic plate.
  • The hologram on the photographic plate is an energy interference pattern.
  • If the holographic film is viewed with illumination from laser light, the object photographed is revealed with all its 3-dimensional characteristics.
  • Furthermore, if the holographic film is cut into many pieces, each piece when illuminated by laser light will reveal a smaller size whole object.
  • Within the energy interference pattern, every piece contains information on the whole (this is called the holographic principle).
  • The fact that every cell within the body contains the information (i.e. DNA) to create an entire duplicate mirrors the holographic principle. "As above, so below".
  • The whole universe may be a tremendous hologram; the selective focusing of consciousness via psychic attunement may hold the potential for decoding the universal hologram.



  • A technique whereby living objects are photographed in the presence of a high frequency, high voltage, low amperage electrical field.
  • This technique creates a corona discharge, whereby electrons stream from the object to a photographic plate.
  • Beautiful colors appear around the living object, and are felt to represent the energy field which extends beyond the body.
  • Burr, in the 1940's at Yale, used conventional voltmeter and found evidence of microvoltage levels around living objects, providing additional evidence for energy fields that extend beyond the living object.
  • Burr and Kirlian found that diseases like cancer caused significant changes in the electromagnetic fields of living organisms.
  • If the upper third of a leaf is cut off and destroyed and the remaining leaf fragment is then photographed using Kirlian photography technique, the photograph reveals an intact, whole leaf.
  • In metaphysical literature, the energy field that surrounds and penetrates living systems is referred to as the etheric body.
  • The concept of the etheric body provides us with an explanation for an unknown in the field of embryology - it explains how each cell in the developing fetus travels to the correct location. The etheric body is a holographic energy field that carries information not only for growth and development, but also repair of the physical body. (This concept would suggest that biological information is not stored just in DNA but also in electromagnetic fields, and this is a paradigm shift!)



  • It is an acknowledged principle within physics that energy of different frequencies can co-exist within the same space without destructive interaction. For example, the electromagnetic energies of all radio and television stations peacefully co-exist in our homes at all times; we can tune into anyone of these slightly different frequencies by using a channel changer with a TV or radio.
  • This same principle would suggest that our physical matter and etheric matter co-exist in the same space. Furthermore, acupuncture meridians seem to provide an interface between physical and etheric matter.
  • Acupuncture is hypothesized to work by redirecting the flow of Qi, vital energy, within the body.
  • Research in rabbits in the 1960's by Professor Kim Bong Han in Korea demonstrated by the use of microautoradiography that radioactive P32 injected into acupoints was taken up by a fine duct-like tubule system which followed classical acupuncture meridians.
  • More recent studies by Pierre de Vernejoul in France using radioactive technetium 99m in humans shows that if injected at classical acupuncture points, it travels up to 30cm in 4 - 6 minutes, whereas if injected at random points on the skin, it travels a much shorter distance.
  • Quantitative measurements by researchers demonstrate a nearly 20-fold drop in electrical resistance at acupoints.



  • Ancient texts from India refer to seven chakras, or energy centers, in the human body.
  • Anatomically each major chakra is associated with a major nerve plexus and major endocrine gland.
  • Major chakras
    1. Root                 color is red                   associated with spinal column and kidneys
    2. Sacral               color is orange              associated with reproductive system
    3. Solar plexus      color is yellow              associated with adrenal glands, digestive organs, and nervous system
    4. Heart                color is green                associated with thymus and circulatory system
    5. Throat              color is sky blue            associated with thyroid, vocal cords and respiratory system
    6. Head                color is indigo               associated with pituitary, left eye, ears, and autonomic nervous system
    7. Crown              color is violet/white       associated with central nervous system and right eye
  • From a physiologic standpoint, the chakras seem to function as energy transformers, stepping down energy to a lower energy level so that the energy can be translated into hormonal changes. Energy from the chakras is delivered throughout the body by a network of meridians.
  • Experimental research by Dr. Hiroshi Motoyama in Japan tends to confirm the presence of a chakra system in human beings. Using subjects who were advanced meditators or individuals with a previous history of psychic experience, and using a special lead-lined recording booth that was electrically shielded from outside electromagnetic disturbance, he found that when an electrode was placed in front of a chakra that the subject claimed had been awakened, the amplitude and frequency of the electric field over that chakra was significantly greater than the energy recorded from the chakras of control subjects.
  • Polarity and shiatsu are healing modalities which are hypothesized to work through the chakra system.



  • Thousands of years old, but systematized by Hahnemann MD, in the early 1800's.
  • Based upon the principle that like cures like and that infinitesimal doses are more potent than less dilute doses.
  • Principles are derived from observation, with Hahnemann observing that cinchona, the treatment of choice for malaria, produced symptoms of malaria when he ingested multiple doses.
  • Hahnemann and researchers after him ingested hundreds of different plant, mineral, and animal extracts and carefully documented all of the symptoms produced by each one. Dilutions of each and every one were then prepared in order to treat the symptom complex in ill people identical to the symptom complex produced by the full strength extract.
  • In practice, the practitioner takes a detailed history from the patient and chooses a remedy based on the history, often using either computers or charts to assist in the choice of the best remedy.
  • Homeopathic remedies are prepared by a technique called succession, which involves serial dilutions and vigorous shaking at each step. In the U.S., the remedies are regulated by the FDA.
  • Most dilutions are more dilute than Avogadro's limit of 6.02 x 1023, which means that biochemically they are nothing but water.
  • However, it is hypothesized that there are biophysical changes in the water, and that each remedy has a unique vibrational frequency. It is further hypothesized that if the vibrational frequency of the remedy is matched to the vibrational frequency of a given ill person, that the ill person can eliminate the illness more quickly (after an initial worsening of the symptoms induced by the remedy), and return to good health and the different vibrational frequency associated with good health. Homeopathic theory suggests that humans, from an energetic standpoint, are like the electrons of an atom (As above, so below). Furthermore, homeopathic theory suggests that ones symptoms represent the bodies attempt to return to equilibrium.
  • If we look at nature, the snow flake provides us with an example in which each snowflake is biochemically identical as water, but each is biophysically unique in terms of shape.
  • Research done at McGill University in Montreal by Dr. Bernard Grad in the 1960's showed that healer-treated water showed significant changes by infrared spectroscopy analysis due to a shift in the atomic bond angle. Furthermore, there was decreased hydrogen bonding between water molecules in healer treated water. This provides experimental support for the theoretical basis of homeopathy.
  • Randomized clinical trials reported in the peer-review medical literature demonstrate that homeopathic remedies work better than placebo for allergic asthma symptoms (Lancet. 1994. 344. 1601-1606) and for pediatric diarrhea (Pediatrics. 1994. 93. 719-725).



  • These are prepared by collecting the morning dew from flowers exposed to sunlight and are hypothesized to contain the vital energy of the plant from which they are derived.
  • Much current information on Bach Flower essences has been intuitively derived--channeled information suggests they are most useful in balancing the nervous system and in treating disorders which manifest at an emotional level.
  • Hypothesized to exert their effects through a unique biocrystalline energy system within the physical body which has certain properties similar to quartz. This same system is postulated to coordinate information transfer from higher dimensional aspects of conscious, often in the form of dreams, to the physical personality by way of a link with the pineal gland in the brain via the right cerebral hemisphere.
  • Gem elixirs prepared by placing one or several gems of a particular crystalline nature into pure spring or distilled water placed in direct sunlight for several hours, also exert their effects through the bodies biocrystalline system, as do color tinctures prepared by placing distilled water in direct sunlight in either a bottle of colored glass or in a glass bottle wrapped with colored plastic.



  • Formulated in 1972 by Delores Krieger, RN, PhD.
  • Based on the theory that living objects are a 4-dimensional energy system that extends beyond the skin boundaries and that disease is due to the disturbance in energy flow.
  • The technique involves centering, a conscious meditative act; assessment of the energy system using the hands as sensors; and energy transfer using the hands to re-establish wholeness. It does not require physical touch.
  • Initial studies with Mr. Estebany (the healer used in Dr. Grad's studies at McGill) which did involve hands-on-healing showed a significant rise in hemoglobin in an experimental group of 46 patients, compared to a control group of 33 patients.
  • In a subsequent study using 32 RNs trained in therapeutic touch, the 16 patients in the experimental group had a statistically significant increase in hemoglobin, whereas the 16 patients in the control group had no change in hemoglobin. [American Journal of Nursing, 1975, 75.784-787] This leads us to conclude that therapeutic touch is a natural human potential.
  • Further research showed a 70% decrease in tension headache pain, sustained over four hours, with therapeutic touch, as compared with 50% in placebo (p<0.01). In this study, for the control group, the practitioner went through the motions of assessment and transfer without centering (Nursing Research. 1986. 35. 101-108).
  • Therapeutic Touch is just one form of hand-mediated energetic healing, with other forms including polarity, reike, shiatsu, acupressure, reflexology, and external qigong (Micozzi, Fundamentals of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Chapter 9).



  • The physical body.
  • The etheric body - energy system which surrounds and penetrates living systems.
  • The astral body - theorized in Eastern and esoteric literature to be the seat of human emotions and composed of subtle matter with even higher energy frequencies than etheric matter. Hypothesized too as the vehicle of the consciousness.
  • Consciousness itself is a kind of energy that is integrally related to the cellular expression of the physical body; consciousness participates in the continuous creation of either health or illness.
  • The concept of the astral body can explain the phenomenon of near death experience whereby individuals who are successfully resuscitated report a sensation of floating above their physical bodies and looking down while being drawn upwards to a light at the end of a tunnel. Some researchers have measured changes in air pressure in the room at the time of death.
  • Out of body experiences can be regarded as astral projection - projection of ones consciousness to a distant locale. This phenomenon is described by the author of Autobiography of a Yoga. Near death experience may be considered a traumatic out of body experience.
  • The mental and causal bodies are at even higher frequencies than the etheric and astral bodies - these are related in theory to reincarnation.


UNITY (Larry Dossey, M.D.)

  • Biodance - endless exchange of elements of living things with the earth.
  • Even in a given person, while the pattern of the gene does not change, the stuff of the gene (i.e. individual atoms) is in constant exchange with the outside world through the act of breathing.
  • Not just atoms, but sometimes whole molecules can be exchanged between organisms (i.e. plasmids in bacteria).
  • DNA is a double helix.
  • Social systems are present throughout the plant and animal world (as above, so below).



  • Richard Gerber, MD, defines Vibrational Medicine as methods which attempt to heal illness and transform human consciousness by working with energetic patterns that guide the physical expressions of life.
  • Humans may be considered electrical devises which produce magnetism - we have an inner circulating core containing iron (hemoglobin) and electrical activity generated predominantly by the heart and the brain (EKG and EEG activity).
  • Phosphorescence, the glow produced by some materials, in the presence of electricity, may be the basis for the human aura.
  • Energy is the capacity to do work, and the energy can be converted into information (i.e. television).
  • DNA absorbs information from its electromagnetic environment (and this may imply epigenetic heredity).
  • Research at the Heartmath Institute demonstrates that coherent electrocardiogram spectra accompany the feeling of love, and these can modulate DNA. Furthermore, these coherent spectra can affect the EEG (i.e. the brain) which in turn may alter immune and endocrine function. As Bernie Siegel, MD, says, "Love Heals".
  • Living systems may be defined as dynamic organizations of intelligent information expressed in energy and in matter, as integrated wholes whose essential properties emerge from the dynamical relationship between its parts (Miller, 1978).
  • Energy Cardiology as derived from systems theory (Advances. 1996. 12. 4-24.).
    • Systems are expressions of organized energy and they emit energy.
      • The heart is a dynamical energy generating system; it pumps energy to the rest of the body via volume conduction in the water which constitutes approximately 60% of our total body weight.
      • The EKG, which can be recorded anywhere on the body, measures the electrical energy emitted by the heart.
    • Energy activates and may regulate systems interactively.
      • The heart may energetically regulate all cells in the body to a certain degree, such as the conductor of an orchestra.
      • The heart may play a role in human consciousness.
      • Mind may arise from heart as well as from the brain.
    • Different energies are emitted simultaneously (ex. the sun and the electromagnetic spectra).
      • The heart generates electrical, magnetic, sound, pressure, temperature, and electrostatic energies.
      • These energies travel at different speeds via volume conduction in the body, and may regulate cells sequentially (analogy is light of lightning, sound of thunder, and pressure change which follows sequentially).
    • Energy is transmitted between systems dynamically and interactively.
      • The electromagnetic energy emitted by the heart travels beyond the surface of the skin, and may have interpersonal and environmental effects.
      • This may have implications for healing in the doctor - patient relationship.
    • Levels of consciousness may interact with patterns of energy.
  • The ancient notion of the heart as the seat of the soul may be based on the fact that the heart emits the greatest magnitude of magnetic energy in the body (the brain emits the greatest magnitude of electrical activity).
  • In the future, crystals such as quartz may be used to augment vibrational healing, and radiologists may use an EMR scanner to detect energy field disturbances.



  • Breathing is a link between the physical body, mind, and spirit. Meditation is based upon breath awareness - breathing is the bridge between our conscious and unconscious minds. In many languages such as Sanskrit, Greek, Hebrew, and Latin, the words for spirit and breath are the same.
  • At an atomic level, breathing allows us to interact with the rest of the Universe, based on the atoms of carbon and oxygen we breathe in and out.
  • Dr. Bernard Grad in research done at McGill University in the 1960's showed that plants watered with healer treated water were of greater height and chlorophyll content. (Magnet treated water had a similar positive effects).
  • Dr. Smith showed that healers alter the rate of enzymatic reactions, with the rate always altered in the direction best for cellular growth and survival.
  • Dr. Smith found that healers could repair damaged enzymes, demonstrating that healing energy has negative entropy.
  • Einstein's mathematical equation (special theory of relativity) actually predicts the existence of what Dr. William Tiller labels magnetoelectrical energy which has the unique property of negative entropy and may travel at 1010 - 1020 the speed of light.
  • SQUID devices allow for the measurement of magnetoelectrical energy fields, and these can be measured around healers.
  • Experiments done at the Spindrift Institute show that rye seeds stressed with addition of salt water to the growth medium, then prayed for, grew statistically significantly better, as did soy seeds. The results were more dramatic with a longer length of prayer, and more dramatic with non-directional prayer.
  • The words whole and holy come from the same Anglo-Saxon root. In many cultures, religion and medicine have never been separate; religion is the medicine of the soul, disease is the manifestation of evil in the body.
  • Medicine separated from religion in the 1600's because scientific knowledge (i.e. the Scientific Revolution) threatened the worldview of the church. It is ironic that new research linking the two threatens the current worldview of biomedicine.
  • Dr. Herbert Benson found that when the deepest religious beliefs of people were added to their daily meditation, that the positive outcomes were more impressive.
  • In a review of 200 studies looking for a linkage between religion and health, 75% revealed a positive relationship.
  • Surveys in which all other risk factors are controlled show that churchgoers have a blood pressure which is 5mm Hg lower than non-churchgoers, half the risk of dying from coronary artery disease, and lower rates of depression, anxiety and suicide. Furthermore, religious coping is the biggest predictor of recovery from depression.
  • A 1995 study at Dartmouth found that one of the best predictors of survival among 232 heart-surgery patients was the degree to which the patients drew comfort and strength from religious faith (Psychosomatic Medicine. 1995. 57. 5-15).
  • Dr. Randolph Byrd demonstrated the benefits of prayer in a human study (Southern Journal of Medicine. 1988; 81: 826-829). This would support the nonlocal nature of the human mind.
    • Double-blinded, randomized, controlled study of 393 patients admitted to the CCU. Neither the patients nor the physicians caring for the patients knew which group they were in. Statistical analysis showed that the groups were similar demographically.
    • The experimental patients were prayed for by devout, Born-again Christians, sometimes thousands of miles away, who were provided by phone with biographical and clinical information on the patients for whom they were instructed to pray.
    • The control patients could naturally be prayed for by friends or family.
    • The results showed a significantly lower severity of illness score based on hospital course after entry in the experimental group, as well as less ventilatory assistance, less antibiotic usage and less diuretic usage.


PUBLIC OPINION AND SPIRITUALITY (Time, 6/24/96 and Gallop Polls)

  • 79% of Americans think of faith as important to health.
  • 76% of Americans think faith has helped them.
  • 63% of Americans think doctors should talk to them about spirit; only 10% say that doctors have done so.
  • 82% believe in healing with prayer.
  • 67% think doctors should pray with patients if asked.
  • 96% of Americans believe in God, and 52% pray daily.



  • Know and encourage spiritual practices.
  • Honor your own spirit.
  • Honor your healing nature.
  • Encourage patients to honor their disease.
  • Seek the meaning of disease.


GENIUSES (Newsweek, 6/28/93)

  • It is hypothesized that there are fewer geniuses in recent years because of the specialization and subspecialization of scientists.
  • By analogy, I believe that unless contemporary biomedicine as an institution breaks free of the progressive narrowing of focus that seems to characterize medical and postgraduate education and clinical practice, I fear that physicians will be trapped in a mode that individually leaves them less effective as healers, frustrated, and vulnerable to disease themselves; and society will be at a disadvantage in terms of advancing our understanding of ourselves and our universe.



  • Noetic sciences” are the systematic and scientific studies of consciousness.
  • Thoughts, feelings, dreams, spiritual insights, capacity for love, and ability to make conscious choices are all subjects of investigation.
  • Founded in 1973 by Apollo 14 astronaut Edgar Mitchell after he had a transcendent experience on his way back to earth from the moon.
  • Nonprofit education, research and membership organization with 28,000 members in 2005.
  • PO Box 7688; Petaluma, CA  94955-7688 or


REFERENCE:    Benor DJ.  Energy medicine for the internist. Med Clin North Am. 2002. 86(1). 105-125.

[Last Updated July 31, 2008] [Return to List of Topics]