G?h?[S1], and assuming that Ge is equivalent
to Demeter, takes the grape decoration on the south stoa of the
sanctuary of Demeter as an indication of the relation of
Dionysios to the cult of Demeter at Pergamon. Ohlemutz, following
Ippel, points out that a statue found in the sanctuary of Demeter
may represent Dionysos. There is, however, no reason to assume
that Gh in this text refers to Demeter.
Pergamon: Dedication to Dionysos
and the Muses .sr xba
Fragment of a marble block; H: 0.20. Found in the rubbish west of
the Byzantine wall.
Fräaut.nkel, IPergamon 184, with drawing
(Quandt, De Baccho, 120; Kaibel,
Epigrammata, p. 509).
von Prott, MDAI(A) (1902) 165; E. Ohlemutz,
Hellenistic; Ohlemutz would date it to the period of Eumenes
Ohilon, son of Menander, dedicated (this) to the
[Muses], lovers of hymns, and to you, child of Semele; the
epithet is the same for both.
a natural epithet for the Muses,
but known only from this text. .cm checked TLG no citations For
u(mnodida/skaloi in the
cult of Dionysos at Pergamon, see no.oca..26, below.
For a dedication to Dionysos and the Muses at Pergamon, see no.
nca, below. Both may have originally stood in the
theater and probably emulated Dionysos as god of dramatic poetry.
Dionysos was associated with the Muses by the Dionysiac Technitai
of Teos, whose organization honored Dionysos, the Muses and
Pythian Apollo; see no.zma. (the decree of the Teian
Technitai found at Delos). Dionysos as god of the theater was
associated with the Muses at Kamiros, see nos.&xpa, &fqa, &gqa,
&iqa, &jqa, &kqa, &oqa, below. .cm checked rhodes no muses in
city For a priest of Dionysos Mousagetes at Naxos, see no.
Pergamon: Letter of Eumenes II to
the Dionysiac Technitai .sr yba
Four large marble blocks and at least 32 fragments of varying
size, originally part of a wall of the temple of Athena at
Pergamon. For a complete description of the stones, with facimile
drawings, see Fräaut.nkel, with Welles' discussion, cited
below. Copied in part by Bröaut.ndsted, Dallaway and
Pittakis, and after excavation revealed more framgents, in whole
by Fräaut.nkel. Now in Pergamon Museum, E.Berlin.
Boeckh, CIG 3063 [Pittakis' copy]; 3537 [Dallaway's
copy]; E. Curtius, CIG 6822 [from Pittakis' copy];
J.L. Ussing, Graeske og Latinske Indsckrifter i
Kjöaut.benhavn (Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs
Skrifter, V II 1; 1854) 32-34 [Bröaut.ndsted's copy];
M. Fräaut.nkel, IPergamon 163; Welles,
H. Swoboda, RhM 46 (1891) 504; A. Conze, SB
Akad. Berl. (1859) 1059-?; F. Poland, De Collegiis
Artificum Dionysiacorum (1895) 10-13; J.P. Mahaffy,
Hermathena 9 (1896) 399; E. Ziebarth, Das griech.
Vereinswesen (1896) 84-?; A. Wilhelm,
AEMöautuc. 20 (1897) 51-56; M. Holleaux,
REA:Ecit. 1 (1899) 399; H. von Prott, MDAI(A) 27 (1902)
166, 171; B. Niese, Gr. und makad. Staaten III
(1903) 63 n.2, 362-?; P. Ghione, Mem.Acc,Torino 55
(1905) 94; G. Cardinali, Regno di Pergamo (1906) 94,
97, 232,268, 276, 280; C. Paepcke, De Pergamenorum
Litteratura (1906) 10, 14, 18-?; J. Oehler,
Epigraphische Beiträaut.ge zur Geschichte der dionysischen
Küaut.nstler (Programm des Mäaut.dchens-Obergymnasium zu
Wien; 1909) 3, 8, 15-?; Poland, Vereinswesen
(1909) 140, 400; A. Wilhelm, Beiträaut.ge zur griech.
Inschriftenkunde:Ecit.(1909) 288 n.12; H. Francotte,
Mé.langes du Droit Public Grec (1910) 67 n.1; G.
Klaffenbach, Symbolae ad Hist. Colleg. Artif. Bacch:Ecit..
(Diss. Berlin 1914) 19; E. Weiss, Griech. Privatrecht I
(1923) 128-?; A. Heuss, Klio Beiheft 39 (1937,
reprint 1963) 96-97; W.W. Tarn, Hellenistic
Civilization (1952&S'&sub3;.) 114-15. E. Ohlemutz,
Kulte, 121. J. Hopp, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte
der letzten Attaliden (Munich 1977) 114.
Dion[usi/wn &-; &-; &-; &-;]. The
public dramatic festival for Dionysos at Pergamon was apparently
not called Dionysia, but Trieterides; see no.fca..25,
and note ad loc., below. For trieteric Dionysia at Opus in
Eastern Lokris, see no.gtb..
Pergamon: The Bakchoi Honor King
Eumenes as Divine .sr zba
White marble altar found built into the square tower of the
Byzantine wall. H: 0.57; W: 0.36; D: 0.23.
H. von Prott and W. Kolbe, MDAI(A) 27 (1902) 94
no.86, with drawing (Quandt, De Baccho, 120).
The Bakchoi of the god who cries "euai" (dedicate
this) to King Eumenes, god and savior.
Allen dates the inscription, on
the basis of letter forms, to the second half of the second
century B.C. Eumenes, therefore, was called qeo/S1
and Sw/thr only after his death.
For Dionysiac organizations where
the members are called ba/kxoi, see nos. &iba
(Kyzikos), above; &sja (Knidos), below; and
AEMöautuc. 11 (1887) 48 no.60 (Tomis) (=no.
Dionysos is called
eu)asth/r in H.Orph. 30.1,
in a papyrus fragment of a Dionysiac poem, APF 7
(1924) 4, line 17, and in Anth.Pal. 9.246. Cf.
eu)asth/S1 in H.Orph.
54.5. Both words mean "One who cries eu)ai/;
for eu)ai/ as the ritual bacchic cry, see
H.C. Youtie, TAPA 68 (1937) 58-59 (=Script.
Post. II 624-25). Eu)ai/ as a ritual
Bacchic cry goes back at least to the sixth century B.C; see
Rusjaeva, VDI (1978) II 87-104 and Tinnefeld,
ZPE:Ecit. 38 (1980) 70, for an inscribed bronze mirror from
Olbia. For eu)asth/rioS1 on
Thasos, see Roux, Euripide, Les Bacchantes II, 633. The
term is discussed in the context of Bacchic cult by Henrichs,
"Changing Dionysiac Identities," 156. The Pergamene group is
probably independent of the Technitai, possibly a group that
practices Dionysiac mysteries; see P.M. Fraser, REA
54 (1952) 243.
Pergamon: Statue of a Priest of
Dionysos Kathegemon .sr aca
Marble statue base; H: 0.246; W: 0.245. Found in the Byzantine
IPergamon 221, with drawing (Quandt, De
H. von Prott, MDAI(A) 27 (1902) 164; E. Ohlemutz,
Reign of Attalos II or Attalos III (Ohlemutz).
King Attalos, son of King Attalos, (dedicates) [a
statue of ---], priest of Dionysos Kathegemon because of his
excellence and benevolence, to Dionysos Kathegemon. [---], son of
Menophanes(?) made (the statue).
For Dionysos Kathegemon at
Pergamon, see below, no.bca.. For the temple of
Dionysos Kathegemon at Pergamon, see R. Bohn,
Altertüaut.mer von Pergamon IV (Berlin 1896)
f[ilostorgi/an] von Prott; cf.
BMI 481.79 (IEphesos 27). .cm checked
Mhnof[a/ntou]. Both names are
found at Pergamon. .cm get citations from IPerg.
Pergamon: Athenaios, Priest of
Dionysos Kathegemon and Sabazios .sr bca
Three marble fragments of a stele, two found in the north stoa of
the temple of Athena. Dimensions when joined: H: 0.84; W:
0.44-0.485; D: 0.085-0.078. The stele originally contained a
decree of Pergamon (only three lines remain) and three letters,
one of Attalos II, two of Attalos III. The stones are now in the
Pergamon Museum, E.Berlin.
A. Conze, Monatsbericht der Berliner Akademie der
Wissenschaften (1881) 875, pl. IV; IPergamon
248, with drawing (Dittenberger, OGIS 331; Quandt,
De Baccho, 120; Michel Recueil 46); F.
Schroeter, De Regum Hellenisticorum Epistulis (1932)
50, nos. 52-53; C.B. Welles, Correspondence, 65-66
(E. Lane, CCIS II 27, lines 45-61 only).
H. Swoboda, RhM 46 (1891) 504-506; H. von Prott,
MDAI(A) 27 (1902) 163-64; E. Breccia, Diritto
Dinastico (1903) 54 n.6, 59, 91 n.2, 133; B. Niese,
Griech. und maked. Staaten III (1903) 365 n.1; G.
Cardinali, Regno d i Pergamo (1906) 131, 206-?,
267-280, 291; M.P. Nilsson, Feste, 309; C. Paepcke,
De Pergamenorum Litteratura (1906) 19-?; H.
Francotte, Mé.langes de Droit Public Grec (1910)
33-37; L. Ruland, Annuaire de l'Univ. Cath. de Louvain
(1913) 272-82; Adler, RE X (1919) 2420, s.v.
Kathegemon; Schultess, RE, X (1919) 2452,
s.v. kataxwri/zein; Schaefer,
RE I A.2 (1920) 1544, s.v. Sabazios; W.
Schubart, APF 6 (1920) 340; P. Stengel,
Griech. Kultusaltertüaut.mer (1920) 36, 44; Pfister,
RE Suppl. IV (1924) 278, 298-99, s.v.
Epiphanie; Böaut.mer, RE XXI.2 (1952)
1942 no.132; P.M. Fraser, REA 54 (1952) 243 n.1;
M.P. Nilsson, Mysteries, 9-10; J. Hopp,
Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der letzten Attaliden (1967)
Dionysos was called Kathegemon
because he was considered to be the leader of his own band of
worshippers. The epithet apparently originated at Pergamon where
Dionysos was protector of the kings and city. Von Prott and Adler
argue that he was called Kathegemon because he was believed to be
founder of the Pergamene Attalid dynasty; see Paus. 10.15.3, for
Attalos described as son of a bull (Dionysos) in a Delphic oracle
predicting his victory over the Gauls. F. Taeger, Charisma,
Studien zur Geschichte des antiken Herrscherkultes I
(Stuttgart 1957) 346-47, argues that it was not Dionyos who was
considered ancestor of the Attalids, but Herakles, who figures
prominently in the Telephos frieze and in the Gigantomachia on
the altar of Zeus.
For a private dedication to
Sabazios at Pergamon, see Lane, CCIS II 12-13,
Pergamon: Dedication of an Altar
to Dionysos .sr cca
Rough altar found in the middle hall of the upper gymnasium
terrace. Above the inscription, a bunch of grapes carved in
relief. On the right face is a kantharos, on the left a bearded
mask with ivy wreath. H: 0.73; W: 0.34; D; 0.36.
P. Jacobsthal, MDAI(A) 23 (1908) 401 n.24 (Quandt,
De Baccho, 121).
W. Döaut.rpfeld, MDAI(A) (1912) 261; E.
Ohlemutz, Kulte, 118.
The ethnic of a local town,
otherwise unkown; Zgusta, Ortsnamen, 82 no.77. For
local waterways with similar names, see J. Tischler,
Kleinasiatische Hydronymie (Wiesbaden 1977) 39-40.
Pergamon: Dionysos as God of the
Theater .sr dca
Inscribed epistyle and scultptured frieze decorated with masks
and an ivy garland; H: 0.63; W: 3.12. Found in the theater
between the skene and the entrance to the cavea. Now in the
Archaeological Museum in Istanbul.
IPergamon 236, with drawing (Quandt, De
Baccho, 120); for photo, see Altertüaut.mer von
Pergamon IV 1. .cm check no.
H. von Prott, MDAI(A) 27 (1902) 165; E. Ohlemutz,
Originally from a remodelling of the theater in the Attalid
period; used again in the rebuilding of the skene in the Roman
Apollodoros, son of Artemon, secretary of the
demos, (dedicates) this gateway and the curtain in it to
Dionysos Kathegemon and the demos.
For dedications by the same
person, see IPergamon 237-38.
For dedications to a god and the
demos at Pergamon cf. IPergamon 237, 239, to
Zeus Tropaios and the demos. Dedications to Dionysos and
the demos are common elsewhere; see no.tua.
(Erythrai), etc.. For this expression of ti/mh, in
the sense of homage to the city and worship of the god, see A.D.
Nock, Essays I 241-42.
Pergamon: Dedication by an
Archiboukolos to Dionysos Kathegemon .sr eca
Small, sqaure altar decorated on front face with kantharos and
grapevine, in relief. Found in the wall of a podium hall in a
W. Radt, AA (1979) 321-23, with photo, fig. 10
Mitchell and Nicoll, AR:Ecit. (1978-79) 66; M.J.
Mellink, AJA 83 (1979) 340, with photo.
The same Herodes,
archiboukolos, is mentioned in another dedication
(fragmentary and unpublished; see Radt), found nearby. He was a
leader of a Bacchic organization that may have met in the house
where the present text was found. The building, in both its
Hellenistic and Roman phases may have been used by a private
Dionysiac organization. The late Imperial phase of the building
had a cult niche decorated with a grapevine; AA
(1977) 310-11, with fig. 9. A representation of a thyrsos
leaning against an altar with sacrificial fire was found on the
Leader of a group of ranked
worshippers called boukoloi. At Pergamon this group seems
to have performed dances and celebrated mysteries; see below,
nos.&oca., &qca., &rca.. Their dances were a feature of the
Pergamene Trieterides. For other archiboukoloi at
Pergamon, nos.&oca., &sca., &uca.. Boukoloi seem to be a
traditional group of Dionysiac worshippers, possibly associated
with Dionysos in the form of a bull. For boukoloi in
Athenian literature, see Eur. Bacch.199, 618,
920-22, 1017, 1159; Ar. Vesp. 9-10. For possible
boukoloi in Dionysiac scenes on Attic vases, see C.
Bé.rard, Anodoi, Essai sur l'imagerie des passages
chthoniens (Rome 1974) 108. E. Simon, AK 6
(1963) 11, associates the Boukoleion at Athens, site of the
"marriage" of the Basilinna and the Basileus at the Anthesteria,
with Bacchic worshippers called boukoloi. P.J. Rhodes,
Commentary on the Aristoltelian Athenaion Politeia
(Oxford 1981) 103, assumes that the name of this building
originated in Dionysiac ritual. Nilsson, Mysteries:Ecit.,
60, associates the role playing and dancing of the
Pergamene Boukoloi with the Dionysiac pantomimic dancers
described by Lucian in Ionia and Pontus; see the discussion above
Pergamon: Trieterides at Pergamon
Large piece of a marble column inscribed with a text in two
columns; found about eight meters from the southeast corner of
H. Hepding, MDAI(A) 32 (1907) 257-72 no.8, from
photos (Pergamon 772.771.1104-1106) and squeeze (Quandt, De
E. Ohlemutz, Kulte, 108; Böaut.mer,
RE XXI.2 (1952) 1942 no.132; J. and L. Robert,
The name of the major public
festival in honor of Dionysos at Pergamon was called
Triethri/deS1, celebrated every two
years. From this inscription we know that the major activities of
the festival took place in the theater. These activities included
a procession (Böaut.mer), and sacrifice. Diodorus Herodion,
as part of his honor from the city will have the privelege of
joining the priest of Dionysos at the head of the procession, and
will also join in offering incense and libations in the
There is no evidence for the conventional Dionysia at
Pergamon. R. Herzog and G. Klaffenbach, Abhand.
Berlin (1952) 7-8 no.2 (SEG:Ecit. XII.369) found on
Kos, is a letter from a Hellenistic king and in lines 18-19 may
refer to a festival of Dionysos in the home city of the king. The
lines have been restored as follows: kai\
to\n a)gw=na, o(\n
ti/&-; / [qe/men tw=i
Hermes:Ecit. 65 (1930) 469-70, thought that the home city was
Pergamon, and Welles, Correspondence 133, with some
hesitation, suggested that the festival could have been the
Pergamene Dionysia. This seems unlikely. See no.ywa.
C.11 and note. The Trieterides, probably celebrated only in
alternate years, were the Pergamene equivalent of the Dionysia;
see C.P. Jones, Chiron 4 (1974) 187.
The Trieterides were celebrated in the theater, an agon
was part of the festival, and honors were publically proclaimed.
If the Trieterides in honor of Dionysos Kathegemon, introduced at
the time of Eumenes II, replaced an original Dionysia, it is odd
that no trace of such an annual festival survives. The Pergamene
Trieterides included performances that may be considered atypical
for the traditional Dionysia. For Boukoloi performing choruses at
the Trieteris, see nos. &qca., &rca., and possibly
&oca., below. .cm is there a difference between the singular and
the plural? For the Trieterides as characteristic of Dionysos,
see Quandt, 262. (Note: Ohlemutz, 109, goes so far as to suggest
that the Trieterides were associated with private
mysteria). Other activities at the Pergamine Trieterides
included continual drinking and relaxation (Suda,
s.v. triethri/deS1). For the
Trieterides in the Roman period, see &rca, below.
Pergamon: Celebrations for the
Children of the Emperor and Dionysos Kathegemon .sr gca
Part of a marble statue base, found in the rubble below the south
side of the temple of Athena. H: 0.43; W: 0.30; D: 0.37.
IPergamon 384, with drawing (IGR IV
H. von Prott, MDAI(A) 27 (1902) 183; Quandt,
De Baccho, 126; Ohlemutz, Kulte, 117 n.76.
Nock, Essays I 248 and n.253.
Between 17 B.C. (adoption of Gaius and Lucius) and A.D. 2 (death
Euangelion, son of Metrodoros, gymnasiarch at his own
expense and prytanis and supervisor of the contest (in
honor of) the children of the emperor and of Dionysos Kathegemon,
from the money left over from the festival, dedicated (this
statue of) the divine Caesar Augustus, Emperor.
no omission of kai/ or
asyndeton: Fräaut.nkel and Nock. The children are
synnaoi with the god. The members of the Imperial family are
not themselves thought of as divine, but were simply sharing in
the cult or ceremony. For the title
pai/dwn, cf. IPergamon 475. There
was therefore at Pergamon a celebration of games in honor of the
adopted sons of the emperor (cf. IEphesos 261 =
CIG 2961b): .cm 261 is checked oi(
a)gw=neS1]1. For Imperial games
associated with Dionysos at Teos, cf. no.ega., below:
Pergamon: Honors for a Priest of
Dionysos Kathegemon .sr hca
Seven fragments of a plinth of a marble statue inscribed on both
sides with the same text. Fragments were found in the modern city
and in the ancient city, west of the upper gymnasium, in the
so-called "Kellerstadion", and south of the supporting wall of
the Demeter terrace.
A. Conze and C. Schuchhardt, MDAI(A) 24 (1899) 177
no.27, only one fragment, with facsimile (incorrectly restored by
von Prott, MDAI(A) 27 (1902) 181=Lafaye,
IGR IV 397) P. Jacobsthal, MDAI(A) 33 (1908) 407
no.36; H. Hepding, MDAI(A) 34 (1909) 330-31, with drawing,
330 (Quandt, De Baccho, 122).
The demos honored Mithradates, son of
Menotodos, hereditary archiereus and priest of Dionysos
Kathegemon, having restored the city and its territory to its
hereditary gods and having been, with Pergamos and Philetairos,
Mithradates' family is well known
at Pergamon; IPergamon 213, 247. Mithridates himself
had spent part of his youth in the court of Mithridates VI and is
described as regio genere ortum, disciplinis etiam regiis
educatum (Bell. Alex. 78). He was a close friend of
Julius Caesar and provided support in the Egyptian campaign of 48
B.C. (ibid., 26; Ruge, RE 15.2 (1932) 2205-6, s.v.
Caesar himself may not have visited Pergamon at this time, but
he was honored by the demos there with two inscriptions;
IPergamon 379-80. The honors for Mithridates may
belong to the same period; see H. Hepding, MDAI(A) 34
(1909) 329-40, for the suggestion that Mithradates was honored by
the city because he had arranged with Caesar that Pergamon be
i(era kai\ a)/suloS1
kai\ au)to/nomoS1 (cf.
BMI 792, Ilion, and 801, Laodicea, IGR IV 199,
Ilion). .cm Check the BMI refs. The association of Mithradates
with both Caesar and Dionysos may have been part of the
motivation for the tradition that at the time of Caesar's victory
at Pharsalos the sound of tympana and cymbala was
heard to come from the adyton of the temple of Dionysos at
Pergamon, where only the priests were allowed to go (Caes.
Bell. Civ. 3.105; Cass. Dio 41.61).
This priest was in charge of the
trieteric festival of Dionysos at Pergamon; see &bca, above.
Other known priests of Dionysos Kathegemon belonged to highly
placed, influential Pergamene families; see &bca, above, and no.
Eponymous founder of Pergamon, son
of Pyrrhus and Andromache (Paus. 1.11.1-2; Serv. in Ecl.
6.72; IPergamon 289).
Philetairos was born in
Paphlagonia ca. 343 B.C., and was royal treasurer at Pergamon
under Lysimachos. He revolted against Lysimachos in 282 and
became founder of the Attalid dynasty; see Hansen,
Mithradates, because of services
performed, is elevated to the status of mythic founder of
Pergamon, third after Pergamos and Philetairos. See Hepding,
Philologus 88 (1933) 95 n.26.
Pergamon: Dionysos and the Speira
of the Midapedeitai .sr jca
Limestone altar. H: 1.13; W: 0.69; D: 0.69. Found in a medieval
wall south of the agora.
IPergamon 319, with drawing (Quandt, De
L. Robert, EBACKSPACE´.tudes anat. 62-63; A.D. Nock,
Essays I 240; M.P. Nilsson, Mysteries,
50; E. Ohlemutz, Kulte, 110.
For the same organization honored
together with Dionysos, see no. &ica, below. The honoring of a
god together with an organization does not imply that the
organization itself was considered divine. For the same practice
with other gods, cf. IPergamon 321: Dii\
Nai/+w| kai\ th=|
suno/dw|. .cm check this As Nock, points
out, there was no distinction between worship and homage, both
were considered under the definition of honor or
ti/mh. For dedications to Dionysos and the
mystai, see no.hba. (Kyzikos), Heberdey,
Reisen 104 no.183, no. &nma. ( below; IG XII
Suppl. 397 (= no.nta, Thasos); L. Robert,
EBACKSPACE´.tudes anat. 62 n.3. The term speira
is almost always used of Dionysiac groups; see L. Robert,
Hellenica 2 (1946) 130-32. For a dedication to the gods
and the speira by a priest of Dionysos, see
IG:Ecit. XIV 977. For a Pergamene speira:Ecit. with female
members, see MDAI(A) 37 (1912) 286:
&<;s&>;peirh|. The stone is decorated
with a wreath of ivy; for this reason L. Robert associates it
with Dionysos, BE 1958.109.
Midapedion was a village in the
area of Pergamon; MDAI(A) 27 (1902) 121 no.133:
Midapedi/ou, 32 (1907) 440-41 no.12 (on
a list of local ephebes); see L. Robert, Villes 79&;
Noms 102; .cm Robert is checked Zgusta,
Ortsnamen 382 no.807-2. .cm Ohlemutz, following Fraenkel,
thinks the term is of Phrygian origin .cm because of the
similarity to the name Midas- cf. "h=moS1 .cm
Makropedeitw=n, from s. Phrygia,
Ramsay, AJA (1888) 19. .cm Robert in Villes says no - sees no
Lydian connection either
Pergamon: Dionysos and the Speira
of the Medapedeitai .sr ica
Marble fragment of an altar or statue base. H: 0.33; W; 0.33; D:
0.14. Found south of the agora.
IPergamon 320, with drawing (Quandt, De
Julius Karpophoros and Gettix dedicated the
propylon with the columns themselves to Bromios of the
Karpofo/roS1 appears as a proper name
on two other Pergamene texts: no.pca, below, and
MDAI(A) 24 (1899) 184 no.40. .cm checked MDAI
Ge/ttic: Fraenkel. Te/ttic,
cicada, is a name known from Crete; Fraser, Names:Ecit.
A gateway with columns
suggests a building of some size, in spite of the poor qualtiy of
the inscription. The other inscription mentioning Julius
Karpophoros was found in Building H, a building with rough
columns, located east of the temple of Hera and above the upper
gymnasium. See Conze, Pergamon I.2 184 and
Döaut.rpfeld, Pergamon VI 108. Ohlemutz suggests
that this building was the meeting place of the Dionysiac
organization. For other buildings dedicated to Dionysos, see no.
Probably a local ethnic like
Midapedeitw=n, above &jca and &ica..
Fräaut.nkel and Quandt wrongly take it as referring to
Pakoria on the Euphrates, a town mentioned by Ptolemaios, 5.18.7.
.cm checked Robert Villes and there is nothing
Pergamon: Dedication of an Altar
to Dionysos Kathegemon .sr pca
Seven fragments, not joining, of a rectangular marble plate with
rounded depressions at the corners. The inscription is inscribed
on two of the fragments. Found in Building H, north and above the
temple of the upper gymnasium.
H. Hepding, MDAI 35 (1910) 461-62 no.43, (Quandt,
De Baccho, 122).
The object called here a
bw/moS1 is in fact a table for dedicatory
offerings. Normally a flat rectangular plate with shallow
depressions for offerings is called a
tra/peza. For the lack of a sharp
distinction between the terms bw/moS1 and
tra/peza, see Reisch, RE 1 (1894)
1675. For a similar table dedicated to Apollo, cf. Ramsay,
Cities I 1 338 no.183
(tr[a/]pezan]1. Offering tables
were usually used for vegetable offerings (cf. Chionides,
Athen.4.137e), but animal offerings could also be placed on an
offering table; see Dittenberger, OGIS ad. 456.8.
For the offering to Dionysos of a goat placed on a
tra/peza, see LSCG 90 (Kallatis,
second century B.C.). For trapezo/mata
laid on what is called a bw/moS1, see
LSAM 21 (Erythrai, fourth century B.C.).
For a dedication of a large marble
krater with Dionysiac decoration, cf. no.laa
Karpofo/roS1 as a personal name at
Pergamon, cf. &lca, above. It is possible, as Ohlemutz suggests,
that the Julius Karpophoros of that text is the same individual
here, and that Building H, where both stones were found, was a
meeting place for Dionysiac worshippers.
Pergamon: A Stibadeion for
Dionysos Kathegemon .sr mca
Two joining fragments of the lower right corner of a white marble
plaque; H: 0.215; D: 0.075 (above), 0.105 (below). Found in the
Byzantine wall. Carelessly inscribed. Ohlemutz, 112, without any
justification, thinks it originally was located on the theater
A. Wilhelm, MDAI(A) 17 (1892) 190;
IPergamon 222, with drawing (Quandt, De
F. Poland, RE III A.2 (1929) 2481, s.v.
stiba/deion; M.P. Nilsson,
Mysteries, 63 n.101; E. Ohlemutz, Kulte,
112-13; Merkelbach, Die Hirten, 63. .cm on
For Dionysos associated with the
Muses at Pergamon, see &xba, above. Ohlemutz suggests that this
statue base originally stood in the area of the theater. For
Dionysos Kathegemon as god of the theater, see no.xoa.,
Pergamon: Honors for Soter
Artemidorou, Archiboukolos .sr oca
White marble stele, broken into two pieces; believed to have been
found in the theater at Pergamon. Once in the yard of the Greek
church at Bergama, now lost. H: 0.965; W: 0.325-375. Decorated
with ivy wreath above the text; letters carefully cut.
C. Curtius, Hermes 7 (1873) 39 no.12; N. Palle,
Mouseion 2.1 (xxxx) 4; IPergamon 485,
with drawing (Quandt, De Baccho 123;
M.P. Nilsson, Mysteries, 52, 59; Opusc.
Sel. II 533. Merkelbach, Die Hirten, 61.
Implies a theatrical context. For
Boukoloi performing choruses at the Trieterides, see nos.&qca.
and &rca., below.
Pergamon: Honors for a Priest of
Dionysos Kathegemon .sr qca
Marble panel, broken on the right and at the bottom. H: 0.46; W:
0.25. Found in a private home.
H. von Prott, MDAI(A) 24 (1899) 179 no.31, with
facsimile (Quandt, De Baccho, 123).
H. von Prott, MDAI(A) 27 (1902) 181; M.P. Nilsson,
Mysteries, 52, 59; Opusc. Sel. II 533;
E. Ohlemutz, Kulte, 108-111, 117; R. Macmullen,
Paganism in the Roman Empire (New Haven 1981) 152
Fraenkel suggests that frg. B is from a list of new initiates
inducted into the organization and that frg. A from is an
honorary text. He says that the script is similar, but not
identical and that the fragments come from contemporary, but
probably different texts.Should I split these into two ?
Pergamon: Dionysiac Worshippers
Three joining fragments of a marble tablet, broken on top, bottom
and right; H: 0.56; W: 0.53. Found in the southwest section of
IPergamon 487, with drawing (Quandt, De
Fragment of a framed panel, found in the southwest part of
Building-Group V on the citadel. H: 0.22; D: 0.085 (without
border). The profiled border is similar to those of inscribed
imperial edicts elsewhere.
IPergamon 282, with drawing (Quandt, De
Baccho, 122; IGR IV 370).
A term used of the mysteries, too
sacred to mention. Cf. Eur. Bacch. 472:
For a royal edict about Bacchic
mysteries in the Hellenistic period, cf. the edict of Ptolomy
Philopater, :Cit.BGU 1211; G. Zuntz, Hermes 91
(1963) 228-39. It is possible, from the ornamentation of the
stone, that this is another such edict concerning the mysteries
Is there a parallel for olive
(wreaths?) associated with Dionysos?
Pergamon: Oracle of Klarian Apollo
Stele found at Pergamon by a visitor from Chios in 1818. H: 28
inches on the left, 32 on the right. Now lost.
C. de Vidua, Inscr. ant. 13 and pl. XIV 1, wrongly
attributing text to Alexandria Troas; (Letronne, JS
 20-21; Welcker, Sylloge Epigrammatum
Graecorum  183; CIG 3538; Kaibel,
Epigrammata 1035; printed with
IPergamon 324; IGR IV 360; Picard,
BCH 46  190, lines 1-10).
K. Buresch, Klaros 70-72; .cm just a short comment
on plague Keil/v.Premerstein I 10-11 no.16; Ohlemutz,
Kulte, 76-77; B. Hemberg, Die Kabiren
(Uppsala 1950) 173-74; L. Robert, RPh (1984) 17-18
(:Cit.Op. Min. VI 467-68). J. and L. Robert, BE:Ecit.
1952.66; .cm 1956.279 1957.401 citations frome Parke are wrong L.
Robert, Laodicé.e du Lycos, 305; .cm Peek, ZPE 21
(1976 ) 280 this citation is Parke's and wrong Parke, The
Oracles of Apollo in Asia Minor (1985) 135-55.
Picard and Hemberg want to date the oracle to the plague during
the reign of Marcus Aurelius; ca. 166. Boeckh says between
Antonius Pius and Caracalla. Keil and Premerstein hedge on the
date of the Kaesareia Trochetta oracle (see under Lydia).
[Eponymous date...; those sent to consult the oracle
were]...Claudius...and Claudius...who having been initiated (or
instructed?) and having entered [the sacred crypt, consulted the
oracle and brought back] the recorded true respnse; the Council
and the People of the metropolis of Asia and of the first city of
the Pergamenes, twice Neokoros, have decided to inscribe
the oracle on steles and to set them up at the agora and the
sanctuaries. (Oracle): He spoke to the descendants of Telephos,
those who dwell in the Teuthrian land, honored by king Zeus, son
of Kronos, more than all others and to the family of
loud-thundering Zeus and to unwearied, war-sustaining Athena, and
to Dionysos, who banishes care and produces life, and to Paion,
healer of painful diseases; among whom the Kabeiroi, sons of
Ouranos, were the first to establish high above the Pergamene
peak, new-born Zeus the lightning-thrower, when he loosed his
mother's womb. He spoke a remedy truthfully, with unlying voice,
that the people of Aiakida no longer be worn by painful disease:
this will be pleasing to my son; for him I order you, guide of
the road for the theoroi, to divide into four parts for
all the guides as many chlamys-wearers (=ephebes) as there are
under the sacred tower and have them follow the four leaders in
rows; one (row) will sing a hymn for the son of Kronos, another
will sing for Eiraphiotes, another for Tritogeneia, the maiden
bold with the spear, and the last will sing with another song for
Asklepios, my beloved son. Let the feasters offer on the altars
for seven days as a gift to Pallas thighs of a sacred untamed
yearling bull, and to Zeus (thighs) of a two year old bull, and
the same for Zeus Bakchos, and to the child of Koronis, offering
the thighbones of the customary bull, prepare the feast in
advance, as many of you who are unmarried, still clothed in the
chlamys, still living in your fathers' homes. pouring with
each libation, beg from the immortals a good cure from the
plague, so that it might go forth, far way from here to the land
of enemy peoples...
Picard. This is the formula for
consulting the oracle at Klaros. Cf. JOBACKSPACE¨aut.AI 8
(1905) 170 no.4. Consultants had to descend into a subterranean
chamber under the temple. For a description of the procedure of
consultation, see Parke, The Oracles of Apollo in Asia
Minor (London 1985) 135-55; Picard, Eph&eagrave.se
et Claros (1922) 303-4. For
e)mbateu/ein as ritual passage
for the initiate see S. Eitrem, EMBATEUW,
Studia Theologica II 1 (1948) 90-94.
Picard; for XIAION:
Vidua. Ordinary in prose for
a)kh/ratoS1 (which can be used of
fa/rmaka). Is it possible to use such a word
in a poetic context?
Neokoros is a title given
to cities that had a temple for the Imperial cult. Pergamon
assumed the title newko/roS1 with the
building of the temple to Augustus and Roma early in the first
century and the title di\S1
newko/roS1 between 108/109 and February
116 with the dedication of the temple of Trajan; Magie,
Roman Rule 595, 1432 n.18, 1451 n.7. See also, B. Burrell,
Neokoroi: Greek Cities of the Roman East (Diss.
Harvard 1981; summary in HSCP 85 
Laodicé.e, 305, suggests that copies of the oracle
were set up in the sanctuaries of the four gods mentioned in the
An epithet of Dionysos in his
function as god of wine; Epic.Alex.Adesp. 8.10 (=Powell,
Coll.Alex., p. 81), AP 9.254.12, and Plut.
Quaes.conv. 2.657d (of wine mixed two parts to three
Aiakides was the father of
Phyrros, the father of Pergamos, who was eponym of the city of
Pergamon; Paus. 1.11.1. See IPergamon 289.
Ancient protectors of the
sacredness of Pergamine territory: Paus. 1.4.6. Like the Kouretes
on Crete, the Kabeiroi at Pergamon accompanied the Mother of the
Gods, and were believed to have witnessed the birth of Zeus. For
a dedication to the Kabeiroi found on the highest terrace of the
acropolis at Pergamon, see IPergamon 332. For the
Kabeiroi at Pergamon, see Ohlemutz, Kulte 192-202;
Hemberg, Die Kabiren 172-82; Hansen,
In number of dedications Zeus was
second only to Athena at Pergamon. He was considered to be a
protector of the city, and he was the god to whom dedications
were made after military victories. See Hansen,
The choruses of ephebes are to
sing hymns to Zeus, Dionysos, Athena, and Asklepios. Part of the
hymn to Zeus survives: IPergamon 324; Ohlemutz,
Kulte, 77. The hymn may have been displayed in the
sanctuary of Zeus together with a copy of the oracle, see above,
on line 10.
A frequent epithet of Dionysos;
H. Hymn. Hom. 1.2,17,20; Diod. 3.66.11; Cornutus
ND:Ecit. 62.2; Anth. Graec. 9.524.1, 26;
Non.Dion. 9.23, etc.; Hymn. Orph. 48.2;
IG:Ecit. II &S'&sub2;. 3606.8. In antiquity the epithet was
explained in many ways: by the name of a nurse of Dionysos
(*)Eri/fh, H. Lloyd-Jones and P.
Parsons, Supplementum Hellenisticum (Berlin 1983)
fr.1045), by the fact that the unborn Dionysos had been sewed
(e)rra/fqai) into the thigh of Zeus,
by a town named Raphia where Dionysos was supposed to have spent
time as a child, etc. A possible, but not etymologically sound
explanation, is that Dionysos himself had been changed by Zeus
into a goat, e)/rifoS1&; Porph. De
Abst. 3.17, Et. Mag 302.59; see Jessen,
RE V (1905) 2119. For the suggestion that the nymph
was named "goat" from the custom of actually giving children to
goats to nurse, see Merkelbach, Die Hirten:Ecit., 46. For a
month named Ei)rafi/wn at Arcesine
(Amorgos), see IG XII (7) 62.68 (=no.rib.).
In the third century B.C. Athena
replaced Apollo as the primary god of the city when the Attalids
consiously began a campaign to make Pergamon a second Athens; see
Ohlemutz, Kulte 16-59.
The cult of Asklepios had been
brought to Peramon from Epidauros during the riegn of Eumenes II.
The period of its greatest devlopment, however, was the second
century A.D. See Ohlemutz, Kulte 123-173.
Zeus Dionysos is equivalent to
Dionysos and distinct from Zeus, mentioned in the previous
For another oracle of Klarian
Apollo with instructions for surviving a plague, see below, no.
mia.. Both oracles date from the second century, but it
is impossible to to associate either of them with a specific
plague of the many known from that period. For a discussion of
the possibilities, see Keil-Premerstein I, 10-11.
Pergamon Dedication to Dionysos
Small altar, inscribed on four sides. H: 0.27; W: .17; D: 0.15;
found on the middle gymnasium terrace.
Schröaut.der, Schrader, and Kolbe, MDAI(A) 29
(1904) 169 no.11, from a squeeze (Quandt, De Baccho,
Erection of a cult statue of
Dionysos: From Pergamon? .sr yoa
.cm this is acc to Boeckh In the Medici Museum in Florence.
Boeckh, CIG 6829 von Prott, MDAI(A) 27
(1902) 182 .cm check to see whether vP saw the stone (Quandt 124,
128; G. Lafaye, IGR IV 468).
von Prott, MDAI(A) (1902) 182; Ohlemutz, 107 n.39
(need not come from Per says to see: Aler, RE X 2
(1919) 2520-21; Weinreich, SBHeid. (1919) 47-58; E. Meyer, Die
Grenzen der hell. Staaten im Kleinasien (1925) 156.
Caracalla modelled himself on
Alexander, who in turn had modelled himself Dionysos. See Cass.
Dio 77.7: e)le/fantaS1
o(/pwS1 kai\ e)n
ma=llon de\ to\n
do/ch|. See also 77.22, 78.20; Herodian 4.8.3.
For dedications to Caracalla, see von Prott.