What is an Arduino?

Arduino is a Microcontroller. Now you may not know what a microcontroller but it is basically a small computer that has a CPU, memory storage and programmable capabilities. It is designed to be used by anyone of all ages. It is used for building electronic projects. It was desgined for students who do not have any prior knowledge in electronics and programming to learn and be able to perform simple functions. It is comprised of both a programmable circuit board and a software which can be easily accessed from the Arduino website.

How does an Arduino work?

Using the Arduino software and the Arduino programming language, the Arduino board is able to read inputs and turn it into an output. The inputs can be a variety of different thing varying from but not limited to a button being pushed, light on a sensor and many more. The arduino would then take the input and turn it into an output based on what is coded. For example, if a light on a sensor was the inputted the output could be to blink an LED, or if a button is pushed then the output could be to turn the LED off. This can be done through coding in Arduino programming language. Coding here is nothing but a set of instructions telling the arduino to perform a task. We will walk you through some examples shortly.

What is an Ultrasonic Sensor?

Ultrasonic sensor is a sensor that senses how far an object is from the sensor. It can sense objects from 2 cm to 400 cm which translates to about 1 ft to 13 ft. This sensor can help us figure out how far a object is so that we code the arduino in way that it takes the range of the sensor as the input and then stop the robot from moving if the range it too close from the robot car. More Information about the sensor can be found below in the video.

Circuit

The following is the circuit of the robot prototype that is provided to you.
Circuit