and WT worm
The Gronostajski Lab:
The Nuclear Factor I (NFI) family
of transcription/replication proteins
The goal of our laboratory is to gain a better understanding of how
proteins that interact with DNA regulate RNA transcription, DNA
replication and metazoan development. Our focus is on the structure
and function of the Nuclear Factor I (NFI) family of site-specific
DNA binding proteins. In vertebrates, NFI family members function in
both the replication of viral DNA and the transcription of viral and
cellular genes. We are currently analyzing the role of the NFI gene
family in both vertebrate and C. elegans development. Studies on
mouse NFI genes can be divided into two major themes: (1) biochemical
analysis of NFI protein structure and function and (2) molecular genetic
studies on NFI's role in cell growth, differentiation and
development. We are also assessing the function of the single C.
elegans NFI gene (nfi-1,
(3)) and have constructed and are annotating the NFI-Regulome database
which contains all genes for which there is published evidence for
regulation by NFI transcription factors (4).
(1) The DNA-binding
domain of NFI differs from those found in other well characterized
DNA-binding proteins. Four major questions being addressed in the
laboratory are: What is the structure of the NFI DNA-binding domain? How
does NFI recognize and interact with DNA? Does NFI change the
structure of DNA when it binds? What proteins interact with NFI to
stimulate RNA transcription and/or DNA replication? We are asking
these questions both in our laboratory and in collaboration with a number
of talented investigators.
We have shown that the NFI-C protein represses the
glucocorticoid-dependent expression of the MMTV
promoter. This repression can be overcome by overexpression of the
co-activator proteins CBP, p300 or SRC-1, suggesting a role of these
co-activators in MMTV expression. Surprisingly, NFI-C doesn't
repress progesterone stimulation of MMTV. We are currently working
out the biochemical mechanism for this repression by NFI-C and the roles
of co-activators, histone acetylase activity and chromatin remodeling
activity in the process.
(2) We've been
generating targeted mutations in mouse NFI genes to determine the roles of
the different NFI family members in development.
The NFI-A deficient mouse we generated (Nfia-)
has major neurological defects including agenesis of the corpus callosum,
hydrocephalus and defects, in the generation of specific midline glial
cell populations. We're now studying the biochemical pathways
leading to these developmental defects with the goal of determining how
loss of a single transcription factor results in major neuroanatomical
changes. We're focusing on whether loss of NFI-A causes changes in:
1) cell proliferation or death, 2) cell migration or differentiation, 3)
axonal outgrowth, 4) axonal pathfinding, 5) glial cell differentiation and
6) patterns of neuronal or glial cell gene expression.
The NFI-C deficient mouse we generated (Nfic-)
has novel defects in tooth development. Although NFI-C was one of
the first transcription factors cloned and is expressed in many embryonic
and adult tissues, the only defect seen in mice lacking Nfic is that the
molar roots fail to develop and the incisors are dysmorphic and poorly
developed. This defect is severe enough that most mutant mice die
within a few months if fed a standard lab chow, but have a normal lifespan
and are fertile if fed a soft dough diet. Since this is the first
mutation that affects primarily tooth root formation, it should allow us
to determine the molecular pathways needed for this important postnatal
The NFI-B deficient mouse we recently made (Nfib-)
has both major neuroanatomical defects and defects in lung
maturation. The brain defects are more extensive then seen in the Nfia-
mouse above and include agenesis of the corpus callosum, loss of the
basilar pons, and hippocampal defects. The lung defects are of
interest since lung immaturity is a major problem in premature
newborns. We are determining the biochemical and genetic pathways by
which Nfib regulates lung
maturation. We're also determining the specific cell type in the
lung in which Nfib is required
for normal lung maturation.
Most recently, the NFI-X knockout mouse we've made (Nfix-)
has an ENLARGED brain and abnormal cells that contain markers of neural
stem cells within the normally empty cerebral ventricles. We're
characterizing these cells and how they relate to the increased brain
size. We've also shown that NFI-X functions in both the switch
between quiescence and activation of adult neural stem cells and in the
decision made by neural stem cells to proceed down the neural, astrocyte
and oligodendrocyte lineages. Since we've also shown that NFI-A and
NFI-B affect lineage determination we are examining the interaction of
these 3 genes in neural stem cell homeostasis.
(3) While all
vertebrates examined contain 4 highly conserved NFI genes (NFI-A, -B, -C
and -X), the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has only a single NFI
gene (nfi-1). Unlike the case in
vertebrates, where all 4 NFI genes are expressed in many tissues during
both embryogenesis and throughout adult life, the C. elegans nfi-1
gene is expressed primarily during embryogenesis. We've shown that
worms lacking nfi-1 are viable,
but have several interesting phenotypes including a shortened lifespan.
We've demonstrated the first cell-autonomous function of NFI by
showing that expression of the protein specifically in pharyngeal
muscle cells rescues the pharyngeal pumping defect and shortened
lifespan of nfi-1 deficient
animals. We're also published the mapping the in
vivo binding sites of NFI-1 in whole worms, the first whole
genome analysis of in vivo
NFI binding sites in any organism.
(4) We have created
database, which contains all genes for which there is published
evidence that NFI transcription factors regulate their expression.
This database is a work in progress with several dozens of genes
being annotated with a few hundred to go. We will soon be able to
query this database for tissue- and cell-type specific genes regulated by
known transcription factors that cooperate with NFI proteins.
|Above is a
picture of NFI expression in the developing mouse embryo.
These in situs were produced through a collaboration with Dr.
Lyons. For a closer look click
expression in P15 mouse molar. Note expression in
Odontoblasts and Preodontoblasts. Picture is courtesy of
ASM and appears as the cover of the April, 2003 Mol. Cell
|Above are images of Wild
Type (A-C) and nfi-1
null C. elegans (D-F).
Single young adults were spotted in the center of fresh
plates and left for 10 min. (A, D) Photographs of N2 worms and nfi-1
mutants; (B, E) Track patterns of N2 worms and nfi-1
mutants; (C, F) Track patterns of N2 worms and nfi-1
mutants with higher magnification. Note less regular tracks in nfi-1
mutant vs. N2 worms.
Nuclear Factor I binding Site on DNA
For those structurally minded people, here's a
molecular model of an NFI binding site (TTGGCNNNNNGCCAA is the
consensus sequence on duplex DNA). The green balls represent
nitrogens in methyl groups of thymidine residues in the major
groove while the red balls represent nitrogens in guanosine
residues in the major groove protected from methylation by
NFI. We don't know what the protein looks like sitting on DNA,
but we're working on it!
Expression of an nfi-1-lacZ
Above are pictures of
C. elegans embryos expressing an nfi-1-lacZ
transgene. Expression occurs only during embryogenesis
and not in the adult worm. Expression starts in a few
cells and appears to spread throughout most of the
embryo. We are currently identifying the cell types in
which nfi-1 is expressed.
Members of the Lab:
Selected Lab References: (Click on those with links for PDF
Harris, L., C. Dixon, K. Cato, Y. H. Heng, N. D. Kurniawan, J. F. Ullmann,
A. L. Janke, R. M. Gronostajski, L. J. Richards, T. H. Burne, and M. Piper.
Heterozygosity for nuclear factor one x affects hippocampal-dependent
behaviour in mice. PLoS One 8 (2013) e65478. PMID:23776487, PMC:3679126
Dixon, C., T. J. Harvey, A. G. Smith, R. M. Gronostajski, T. L. Bailey, and
M. Piper. Nuclear Factor One X Regulates Bobby Sox During Development of the
Mouse Forebrain. Cell Mol. Neurobiol, (2013) PMID:23852417,
Ding, B., W. Wang, T. Selvakumar, H. S. Xi, H. Zhu, C. W. Chow, J. D.
Horton, R. M. Gronostajski, and D. L. Kilpatrick. Temporal regulation of
nuclear factor one occupancy by calcineurin/NFAT governs a voltage-sensitive
developmental switch in late maturing neurons. J. Neurosci. 33 (2013)
Chang, C. Y., H. A. Pasolli, E. G. Giannopoulou, G. Guasch, R. M.
Gronostajski, O. Elemento, and E. Fuchs. NFIB is a governor of
epithelial-melanocyte stem cell behaviour in a shared niche. Nature 495
(2013) 98-102. PMID:23389444, PMC:3635831
Yusuf, D., S. L. Butland, M. I. Swanson, E. Bolotin, A. Ticoll, W. A.
Cheung, X. Y. Zhang, C. T. Dickman, D. L. Fulton, J. S. Lim, J. M. Schnabl,
O. H. Ramos, M. Vasseur-Cognet, C. N. de Leeuw, E. M. Simpson, G. U. Ryffel,
E. W. Lam, R. Kist, M. S. Wilson, R. Marco-Ferreres, J. J. Brosens, L. L.
Beccari, P. Bovolenta, B. A. Benayoun, L. J. Monteiro, H. D. Schwenen, L.
Grontved, E. Wederell, S. Mandrup, R. A. Veitia, H. Chakravarthy, P. A.
Hoodless, M. M. Mancarelli, B. E. Torbett, A. H. Banham, S. P. Reddy, R. L.
Cullum, M. Liedtke, M. P. Tschan, M. Vaz, A. Rizzino, M. Zannini, S.
Frietze, P. J. Farnham, A. Eijkelenboom, P. J. Brown, D. Laperriere, D.
Leprince, T. de Cristofaro, K. L. Prince, M. Putker, L. del Peso, G.
Camenisch, R. H. Wenger, M. Mikula, M. Rozendaal, S. Mader, J. Ostrowski, S.
J. Rhodes, C. Van Rechem, G. Boulay, S. W. Olechnowicz, M. B. Breslin, M. S.
Lan, K. K. Nanan, M. Wegner, J. Hou, R. D. Mullen, S. C. Colvin, P. J. Noy,
C. F. Webb, M. E. Witek, S. Ferrell, J. M. Daniel, J. Park, S. A. Waldman,
D. J. Peet, M. Taggart, P. S. Jayaraman, J. J. Karrich, B. Blom, F. Vesuna,
H. O'Geen, Y. Sun, R. M. Gronostajski, M. W. Woodcroft, M. R. Hough, E.
Chen, G. N. Europe-Finner, M. Karolczak-Bayatti, J. Bailey, O. Hankinson, V.
Raman, D. P. LeBrun, S. Biswal, C. J. Harvey, J. P. DeBruyne, J. B.
Hogenesch, R. F. Hevner, C. Heligon, et al. The transcription factor
encyclopedia. Genome Biol. 13 (2012) R24. PMID:22458515,
Plachez, C., K. Cato, R. C. McLeay, Y. H. Heng, T. L. Bailey, R. M.
Gronostajski, L. J. Richards, A. C. Puche, and M. Piper. Expression of
nuclear factor one A and -B in the olfactory bulb. J. Comp. Neurol. 520
(2012) 3135-49. PMID:22886731,
Kilpatrick, D. L., W. Wang, R. Gronostajski,
and E. D. Litwack. Nuclear factor I and cerebellar granule neuron
development: an intrinsic-extrinsic interplay. Cerebellum 11 (2012) 41-9.
Kang, P., H. K. Lee, S. M. Glasgow, M.
Finley, T. Donti, Z. B. Gaber, B. H. Graham, A. E. Foster, B. G. Novitch,
R. M. Gronostajski, and B. Deneen. Sox9 and NFIA coordinate a
transcriptional regulatory cascade during the initiation of gliogenesis.
Neuron 74 (2012) 79-94. PMID:22500632,
Heng, Y. H., R. C. McLeay, T. J. Harvey, A. G.
Smith, G. Barry, K. Cato, C. Plachez, E. Little, S. Mason, C. Dixon, R. M.
Gronostajski, T. L. Bailey, L. J. Richards, and M. Piper. NFIX Regulates
Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation During Hippocampal Morphogenesis.
Cereb. Cortex (2012) PMID:23042739,
Gronostajski, R. M., J. Guaneri, D. H. Lee, and S.
M. Gallo. The NFI-Regulome Database: A tool for annotation and analysis of
control regions of genes regulated by Nuclear Factor I transcription
factors. Journal of clinical bioinformatics 1 (2011) 4.
Piper, M., L. Harris, G. Barry, Y. H. Heng, C.
Plachez, R. M. Gronostajski, and L. J. Richards. Nuclear factor one X
regulates the development of multiple cellular populations in the
postnatal cerebellum. J. Comp. Neurol. 519 (2011) 3532-48.
Subramanian, L., A. Sarkar, A. S. Shetty, B.
Muralidharan, H. Padmanabhan, M. Piper, E. S. Monuki, I. Bach, R. M.
Gronostajski, L. J. Richards, and S. Tole. Transcription factor Lhx2 is
necessary and sufficient to suppress astrogliogenesis and promote
neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA)
108 (2011) E265-74. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21690374
Meng, F., T. M. Suchyna, E. Lazakovitch, R. M. Gronostajski, and F. Sachs.
Real Time FRET Based Detection of Mechanical Stress in Cytoskeletal and
Extracellular Matrix Proteins. Cell Mol Bioeng 4 (2011) 148-59 .
Muthusamy, N., H. C. Chen, G. Rajgolikar, K. G. Butz, F.
W. Frissora, and R. M. Gronostajski. Recombination activation
gene-2-deficient blastocyst complementation analysis reveals an essential
role for nuclear factor I-A transcription factor in T-cell activation.
Int. Immunol. 23 (2011) 385-90.
Hsu, Y. C., J. Osinski, C. E. Campbell, E. D. Litwack,
D. Wang, S. Liu, C. J. Bachurski, and R. M. Gronostajski. Mesenchymal
nuclear factor I B regulates cell proliferation and epithelial
differentiation during lung maturation. Dev. Biol. 354 (2011) 242-52.
Piper, M., G. Barry, J. Hawkins, S. Mason, C.
Lindwall, E. Little, A. Sarkar, A. G. Smith, R. X. Moldrich, G. M. Boyle,
S. Tole, R. M. Gronostajski, T. L. Bailey, and L. J. Richards. NFIA
controls telencephalic progenitor cell differentiation through repression
of the Notch effector Hes1. J. Neurosci. 30 (2010) 9127-39.
Zheng, S., S. M. Eacker, S. J. Hong, R. M.
Gronostajski, T. M. Dawson, and V. L. Dawson. NMDA-induced neuronal
survival is mediated through nuclear factor I-A in mice. J. Clin. Invest.
120 (2010) 2446-56.
Wang, W., J. E. Crandall, E. D. Litwack, R. M.
Gronostajski, and D. L. Kilpatrick. Targets of the nuclear factor I
regulon involved in early and late development of postmitotic cerebellar
granule neurons. J. Neurosci. Res. 88 (2010) 258-65.
Messina, G., S. Biressi, S. Monteverde, A. Magli,
M. Cassano, L. Perani, E. Roncaglia, E. Tagliafico, L. Starnes, C. E.
Campbell, M. Grossi, D. J. Goldhamer, R. M. Gronostajski, and G. Cossu.
Nfix regulates fetal-specific transcription in developing skeletal muscle.
Cell 140 (2010) 554-66.
Schneegans, T., U. Borgmeyer, M. Hentschke, R.
M. Gronostajski, M. Schachner, and T. Tilling. Nuclear factor I-A
represses expression of the cell adhesion molecule L1. BMC Mol Biol 10
Piper, M., R. X. Moldrich, C. Lindwall, E. Little, G. Barry, S. Mason, N.
Sunn, N. D. Kurniawan, R. M. Gronostajski, and L. J. Richards. Multiple
non-cell-autonomous defects underlie neocortical callosal dysgenesis in
Nfib-deficient mice. Neural Dev 4 (2009) 43.
Whittle, C. M., E.
Lazakovitch, R. M. Gronostajski, and J. D. Lieb. DNA-binding specificity
and in vivo targets of Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear factor I. Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 106 (2009) 12049-54.
Wang, W., J. E. Crandall, E. D. Litwack, R. M.
Gronostajski, and D. L. Kilpatrick. Targets of the nuclear factor I
regulon involved in early and late development of postmitotic cerebellar
granule neurons. J. Neurosci. Res. (2009)
Lee, D. S., J. T. Park, H. M. Kim, J. S. Ko, H. H. Son,
R. M. Gronostajski, M. I. Cho, P. H. Choung, and J. C. Park. Nuclear
factor I-C is essential for odontogenic cell proliferation and odontoblast
differentiation during tooth root development. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009)
Lee, T. Y., D. S. Lee, H. M. Kim, J. S. Ko, R. M. Gronostajski, M. I. Cho,
H. H. Son, and J. C. Park. Disruption of Nfic Causes Dissociation of
Odontoblasts by Interfering With the Formation of Intercellular Junctions
and Aberrant Odontoblast Differentiation. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2009)
Kumbasar, A., C. Plachez, R. M. Gronostajski, L. J. Richards, and E. D.
Litwack. Absence of the transcription factor Nfib delays the formation of
the basilar pontine and other mossy fiber nuclei. J. Comp. Neurol. 513
Plachez, C., C. Lindwall, N. Sunn, M. Piper, R. X.
Moldrich, C. E. Campbell, J. M. Osinski, R. M. Gronostajski, and L. J.
Richards. Nuclear factor I gene expression in the developing forebrain. J.
Comp. Neurol. 508 (2008) 385-401.
Mason, S., M. Piper, R. M. Gronostajski,
and L. J. Richards. Nuclear Factor One Transcription Factors in CNS
Development. Mol. Neurobiol. 39 (2008) 10-23.
Lazakovitch, E., J.
M. Kalb, and R. M. Gronostajski. Lifespan extension and increased pumping
rate accompany pharyngeal muscle-specific expression of nfi-1 in C.
elegans. Dev. Dyn. 237 (2008) 2100-7.
Campbell, C. E., M. Piper,
C. Plachez, Y. T. Yeh, J. S. Baizer, J. M. Osinski, E. D. Litwack, L. J.
Richards, and R. M. Gronostajski. The transcription factor Nfix is
essential for normal brain development. BMC Dev. Biol. 8 (2008) 52.
Barry, G., M. Piper, C. Lindwall, R. Moldrich, S.
Mason, E. Little, A. Sarkar, S. Tole, R. M. Gronostajski, and L. J.
Richards. Specific glial populations regulate hippocampal morphogenesis.
J. Neurosci. 28 (2008) 12328-40.
Park, J. C., Y. Herr, H. J. Kim, R. M. Gronostajski, and
M. I. Cho. Nfic gene disruption inhibits differentiation of odontoblasts
responsible for root formation and results in formation of short and
abnormal roots in mice. J. Periodontol. 78 (2007) 1795-802.
Wong, Y. W., C. Schulze, T. Streichert, R. M.
Gronostajski, M. Schachner, and T. Tilling. Gene expression analysis of
nuclear factor I-A (NFI-A)-deficient mice indicates delayed brain
maturation. Genome Biol. 8 (2007) R72.
Wang, W., D. Mullikin-Kilpatrick, J. E. Crandall,
R. M. Gronostajski, E. D. Litwack, and D. L. Kilpatrick. Nuclear factor I
coordinates multiple phases of cerebellar granule cell development via
regulation of cell adhesion molecules. J. Neurosci. 27 (2007) 6115-27.
Lu, W., F. Quintero-Rivera, Y. Fan, F. S.
Alkuraya, D. J. Donovan, Q. Xi, A. Turbe-Doan, Q. G. Li, C. G. Campbell,
A. L. Shanske, E. H. Sherr, A. Ahmad, R. Peters, B. Rilliet, P. Parvex, A.
G. Bassuk, D. J. Harris, H. Ferguson, C. Kelly, C. A. Walsh, R. M.
Gronostajski, K. Devriendt, A. Higgins, A. H. Ligon, B. J. Quade, C. C.
Morton, J. F. Gusella, and R. L. Maas. NFIA haploinsufficiency is
associated with a CNS malformation syndrome and urinary tract defects.
PLoS Genet 3 (2007) e80.
Deneen, B., R. Ho, A. Lukaszewicz, C. J. Hochstim,
R. M. Gronostajski, and D. J. Anderson. The transcription factor NFIA
controls the onset of gliogenesis in the developing spinal cord. Neuron 52
Butz, N. V., R. M. Gronostajski
and C. E. Campbell. T-box proteins differentially activate the expression
of the endogenous interferon gamma gene versus transfected reporter genes
in non-immune cells. Gene 377:130-9, 2006.
Lazakovitch, E., J. M.
Kalb, R. Matsumoto, K. Hironoa, Y. Kohara, and R. M. Gronostajski. nfi-1
affects behavior and life-span in C.
elegans but is not essential for DNA replication or survival. BMC
Dev. Biol. 5:24. 2005 (contains BMC Image of the Month)
Steele-Perkins, G., C. Plachez, K.
G. Butz, G. H. Yang, C. J. Bachurski, S. L. Kinsman, E. D. Litwack, L. J.
Richards and R. M. Gronostajski. The transcription factor gene Nfib
is essential for both lung maturation and brain development. Mol. Cell.
Biol. 25:685-98, 2005.
Wang, W., R. E. Stock, R. M. Gronostajski, Y. W.
Wong, M. Schachner, and D. L. Kilpatrick. A role for nuclear factor I in
the intrinsic control of cerebellar granule neuron gene expression. J.
Biol. Chem. 279:53491-7, 2004.
Butz, N. V., C. E. Campbell,
and R. M. Gronostajski. Differential target gene activation by TBX2
and TBX2VP16: evidence for activation-domain dependent modulation of gene
target specificity. Gene 342:67-76, 2004.
Ling, G., C. R. Hauer, R. M. Gronostajski, B.
Pentecost, and X. Ding. Transcriptional regulation of rat CYP2A3 by
nuclear factor 1: identification of a novel NFI-A isoform, and evidence
for tissue-selective interaction of NFI with the CYP2A3 promoter in vivo.
J. Biol. Chem. 279: 27888-95, 2004.
Bachurski, C., G. Yang, T. Currier, R. M.
Gronostajski, and D. Hong. Nuclear Factor I/Thryoid Transcription Factor-1
interactions modulate Surfactant Protein-C transcription. Mol. Cell. Biol.
23: 9014-24, 2003.
Murtagh, J., F. Martin, and R. M. Gronostajski. The
Nuclear Factor I (NFI) gene family in mammary gland development and
function. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 8: 241-54, 2003.
Messam, C. A., J. Hou, R. M. Gronostajski, and E. O.
Major. Lineage pathway of human brain progenitor cells identified by JC
virus susceptability. Ann. Neurol. 53: 636-46, 2003.
Kido, K., H. Bannert, R. M. Gronostajski, and R. M.
Flugel. Bel1-mediated Transactivation of the Spumaretroviral
Internal Promoter Is Repressed by Nuclear Factor I. J. Biol. Chem.
Pan, L., Glenn, S.T., Jones, C.A.,
Gronostajski, R.M. and K.W. Gross. Regulation of renin enhancer
activity by nuclear factor I and Sp1/Sp3. Biochim. Biophys. Acta.
Shu, T., K. G. Butz, C. Plachez, R. M. Gronostajski,
and L. J. Richards. Abnormal development of forebrain midline glia
and commissural projections in Nfia
knock-out mice. J. Neurosci. 23:203-12, 2003.
G., K. G. Butz, G. E. Lyons, M. Zeichner-David, H.-J. Kim, M. I. Cho, and
R. M. Gronostajski. Essential role for NFI-C/CTF
transcription-replication factor in tooth root development. Mol. Cell.
Biol. 23:1075-1084, 2003.
Nuclear Factors, In: The Encyclopedia of Molecular Medicine, Wiley Press,
New York, NY pp. 2290-1, 2002.
Nuclear Factor I, In: The Encyclopedia of Molecular Medicine, Wiley Press,
New York, NY pp. 2291-2, 2002.
Majumder, S., K. Ghoshal, R.M. Gronostajski and S.T.
Jacob. Downregulation of constitutive and heavy metal-induced
metallothionein-I expression by nuclear factor I. Gene Expr.
Mukhopadhyay, S.S., S.L.Wyszomierski, R.M. Gronostajski
and J.M. Rosen. Differential interactions of specific Nuclear Factor I
isoforms with the glucocorticoid receptor and STAT5 in the cooperative
regulation of WAP gene expression. Mol. Cell. Biol. 21: 6859-69, 2001.
Roles of the NFI/CTF gene family in transcription and development. Gene
249: 31-45, 2000.
G. Venkatraman, R.M. Gronostajski, R.R. Reed and F.L. Margolis. NFI in
the development of the olfactory neuroepithelium and the regulation of
olfactory marker protein gene expression. Eur. J. Neurosci. 12:1372-84,
R.M. Gronostajski, G.E. Lyons and F.L. Margolis. Identification of
NFI-binding sites and cloning of NFI-cDNAs suggest a regulatory role for
NFI transcription factors in olfactory neuron gene expression. Mol.
Brain. Res. 72: 65-79, 1999.
L., C. Duchala, F. Godinho, M. Haxhiu, C. Colmenares, W. Macklin, C.E.
Campbell, K. Butz and R.M. Gronostajski. Disruption of the murine
Nuclear Factor I-A gene (Nfia) results in perinatal lethality,
hydrocephalus and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Proc. Natl. Acad.
Sci. (USA) 96: 11946-51, 1999.
N.A. Jenkins, N.G. Copeland, A.Z. Chaudhry and R.M. Gronostajski.
Exon structure of the Nuclear Factor I DNA-binding domain from C.
elegans to mammals. Mammalian Genome 10: 390-396, 1999.
D.R. Crawford, G. Grossman, R.M. Gronostajski and R.W. Hanson.
CREB binding protetin coordinates the function of multiple transcription
factors including Nuclear Factor I to regulate phosphoenolpyruvate
carboxykinage (GTP) gene transcription. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 8813-8822,
A. Vitullo and R.M. Gronostajski. Nuclear Factor I-mediated repression
of the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus promoter is abrogated by the
coactivators p300/CBP and SRC-1. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 7072-7081, 1999.
A. Vitullo and R.M. Gronostajski. Nuclear Factor I (NFI) isoforms
differentially activate simple versus complex NFI-responsive
promoters. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 18538-18546, 1998.
P. Leahy, C. Hu, A. Chaudhry, R. Gronostajski, G. Grossman, J. Woods, P.
Hakimi, W. Roesler and R.W. Hanson. Nuclear Factor I regulates
expression of the gene for phoshoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). J.
Biol. Chem. 273: 13387-13390, 1998.
D.W. Starke, J.J. Mieyal and R.M. Gronostajski. Thioltransferase
(Glutaredoxin) Reactivates the DNA-binding Activity of
Oxidation-inactivated Nuclear Factor I. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 392-397,
G.E. Lyons and R.M. Gronostajski. Expression patterns of the four
Nuclear Factor I genes during mouse embryogenesis indicate a potential
role in development. Developmental Dynamics 208: 313-325, 1997.
Gronostajski, R. M., K. Nagata and J.
Hurwitz. Isolation of human DNA sequences that bind to nuclear factor I,
a host protein involved in adenovirus DNA replication. Proc. Natl. Acad.
Sci. (USA) 81:4013-7, 1984.
Authored by Rich Gronostajski
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