The number of protons is equal to the Atomic Number
Atomic Weight is the average of each isotope's abundance multiplied by the isotope's weight
Nuetrons and Protons are the main contributors to the weight of an atom
All elements besides the Noble gases are looking to gain or lose electrons from their Valence Shells
Valence Shells are the outermost shell of electron orbitals
The elements in group one have 1 valence electron and group 8 has 8
8 is a perfect shell, the elements of group 7 has a tendancy to steal that last electron and group 1 will give them away
This also refers to electronegativity
Quantum Number l:
There are plenty of different types of orbitals, containing a different amount of electrons per group. The quantum number l deals with a subshell notation and a specific amount of valence electrons.
While dealing with bonding of elements there are hybidization that goes on since not all shells are identical. These are bonding of s valence shells and p valence shells. Lewis dot structures are an effective way of showing how elements pair together.