Our Research

We synthesize and characterize nanoscale materials (primarily graphene and TMDCs) and investigate the properties and innovative applications of these materials. Our strengths are in chemical vapor deposition (CVD), Raman spectroscopy, and time-domain terahertz spectroscopy.

Prof. Einarsson

Dr. Erik Einarsson

Assistant Professor

Department of Electrical Engineering
Department of Materials Design and Innovation

Work experience

University at Buffalo
Assistant Professor (2013 – present)
The University of Tokyo
Project Assistant Professor (2009 – 2013)
The University of Tokyo
JSPS Postdoctoral fellow (2007 – 2009)


PhD — The University of Tokyo (2007)
Mechanical Engineering — Advisor: Prof. Shigeo Maruyama
MS  — Portland State University (2003)
Physics — Advisor: Prof. Jun Jiao
BS   — New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (2001)
Physics — Minor: Engineering Mechanics


Course description: This course introduces the properties of electronic materials, with an emphasis on understanding those properties that are important for modern microelectronics. The course begins with a review of concepts from classical physics and quantum mechanics before going on to present essentials of crystal structure, reciprocal space, the free-electron theory of metals, and the band theory of solids. This leads to the introduction of the concept of a semiconductor, followed by carrier statistics, doping, and bandstructure. The course concludes with the theory of optical properties, and some examples of applications of semiconductors to electronic and photonic technologies.

Text: Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, 4th Edition
Links: Amazon, textbooks.com, AbeBooks, and VitalSource.

Course description: This course will provide a unified perspective of inorganic/macromolecular and hybrid bonded materials with a focus on quantifying structure-property relationships. This course provides an overview of the role of chemical bonding and electronic structure on defining properties from an electronic structure perspective.

Course description: This course is intended to develop an understanding of the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic fields, with an emphasis on experience for the students in the lab. Topics covered include: electrostatics; magnetostatics; Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic waves in vacuum; plane waves; monochromatic waves; wave polarization; electromagnetic waves at the interface between two media; geometrical optics; guided waves and transmission lines; radiation and antennas; electromagnetic waves in anisotropic, gyrotropic and optically active media.

Course description: The goal of this course is to familiarize students with a variety of materials synthesis and characterization methods that are likely to be useful to (or encountered by) those pursuing experimental research in electrical engineering and/or solid-state materials science. Ideally, students would take this course just before or shortly after undertaking experimental laboratory research, i.e., as a senior undergraduate or first-year grad student.

This course begins with an introduction to various methods commonly used to synthesize metal and semiconductor thin-films. Physical and chemical deposition methods will be the dominant themes here. The focus will then shift to characterization of materials, first by microscopy and then by spectroscopy. Spectroscopic methods discussed will span most of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Current ANaMaLs

Arka Karmakar

Arka Karmakar

PhD Candidate (EE)

Graphene synthesis and THz applications

Farah Vandrevala

Farah Vandrevala

PhD Candidate (EE)

Time-domain terahertz spectroscopy

Peter Lisker

Peter Lisker

Materials Design and Innovation

Nanomaterials for energy

Arpit Jaiswal

Arpit Jaiswal

Electrical Engineering

Graphene plasmonics

Robert Waelder

Robert Waelder

Materials Design and Innovation

2D semiconductors

Former ANaMaLs

Fei Lu

Fei Lu

PhD – 2018 (EE)
Florian Gollier

Florian Gollier

MS – 2018 (MDI)
Simran Shahi

Simran Shahi

MS – 2016 (EE)
Syed Zain

Syed Zain

UG researcher – 2017
Mahima Ann Philip

Mahima Ann Philip

Research Student – 2016
Joe DeGolia

Joe DeGolia

UG researcher – 2015
Junsung Park

Junsung Park

MS – 2015 (EE)

Papers and Publications

Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications

  1. "Applying the photoluminescence intensity power law to biexcitons and trions in transition metal dichalcogenides"
    F. Lu, W. Zhang, E. Einarsson.
    under review .
  2. "Fabrication of uniform vertically-aligned carbon nanotube–polymer composite thin films by capillary flow intrusion"
    J.H. Cha, S. Chiashi, T. Inoue, E. Einarsson, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama.
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 57 (2018) in press.
  3. "Decoupling substrate thickness and refractive index measurement in THz time-domain spectroscopy"
    F. Vandrevala and E. Einarsson
    Opt. Express 22 (2018) 1697.
    Featured in "Advances in Engineering"
  4. "Approaching completely continuous centimeter-scale graphene by copolymer-assisted transfer"
    A. Karmakar, F. Vandrevala, F. Gollier, M.A. Philip, S. Shahi, E. Einarsson
    RSC Advances 8 (2018) 1725.
  5. "Carrier polarity engineering in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors by induced charges in polymer insulator"
    S. Aikawa, S. Kim, T. Thurakitseree, E. Einarsson, T. Inoue, S. Chiashi, K. Tsukagoshi, S. Maruyama
    Appl. Phys. Lett 112 (2018) 013501.
  6. "Selective and confined growth of transition metal dichalcogenides on transferred graphene"
    F. Lu, A. Karmakar, S. Shahi, E. Einarsson
    RSC Advances 7 (2017) 37310.
  7. "Influence of thickness on crystallinity in wafer-scale GaTe nanolayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy"
    C.J. Bae, J. McMahon, H. Detz, G. Strasser, J. Park, E. Einarsson, D.B. Eason
    AIP Advances 7 (2017) 035113.
  8. "Lithographically Defined Plasmonic Graphene Antennas for Terahertz-band Communication"
    L. Zakrajsek, E. Einarsson, N. Thawdar, M. Medley, J.M. Jornet
    IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 15 (2016) 1553.
  9. "Highly Stable and Tunable n-Type Graphene Field-Effect Transistors with Polyvinyl Alcohol Films"
    S.J. Kim, P. Zhao, S. Aikawa, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 7 (2015) 9702.
  10. "Equilibrium chemical vapor deposition growth of Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene"
    P. Zhao, S.J. Kim, X. Chen, E. Einarsson, M. Wang, Y.N. Song, H.T. Wang, S. Chiashi, R. Xiang, S. Maruyama
    ACS Nano 8 (2015) 11631.
  11. "From isotope labeled CH3CN to N2 inside single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, T. Thurakitseree, E. Einarsson, A. Takashima, T. Kinoshita, T. Muro, S. Maruyama
    Nanoscale 6 (2014) 1525.
  12. "Self-assembled microhoneycomb network of single-walled carbon nanotubes for solar cells"
    K.H. Cui, T. Chiba, S. Omiya, T. Thurakitseree, P. Zhao, S. Fujii, H. Kataura, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4 (2013) 2571.
  13. "Spray coating as a simple method to prepare catalyst for growth of diameter-tunable single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, H.Q. Zeng, Y.Q. Su, X.C. Gui, T.Z. Wu, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, Z.K. Tang,
    Carbon 64 (2013) 537.
  14. "Investigation of non-segregation graphene growth on Ni via isotope-labeled alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition"
    P. Zhao, B. Hou, X. Chen, S.J. Kim, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Nanoscale 5 (2013) 6530.
  15. "Self-limiting chemical vapor deposition growth of monolayer graphene from ethanol"
    P. Zhao, A. Kumamoto, S.J. Kim, X. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, Y. Ikuhara, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C 117 (2013) 10755.
  16. "Reversible diameter modulation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by acetonitrile-containing feedstock"
    T. Thurakitseree, C. Kramberger, A. Kumamoto, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    ACS Nano 7 (2013) 2205.
  17. "Carbon atoms in ethanol do not contribute equally to formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, B. Hou, E. Einarsson, P. Zhao, S. Harish, K. Morimoto, Y. Miyauchi, S. Chiashi, Z.K. Tang, S. Maruyama
    ACS Nano (2013) article ASAP.
  18. "One-dimensional N2 gas inside single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, T. Thurakitseree, H. Koh, Y. Izumi, T. Kinoshita, T. Muro, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Carbon 55 (2013) 196.
  19. "Reduction of single-walled carbon nanotube diameter to sub-nm via feedstock"
    T. Thurakitseree, C. Kramberger, P. Zhao, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Phys. Status Solidi B 249 (2012) 2404.
  20. "On the polarization-dependent Raman spectra of aligned carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, T. Thurakitseree, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Appl. Phys. A 109 (2012) 509.
  21. "Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity increase of aqueous nanofluid with single-walled carbon nanotube inclusion"
    S. Harish, K. Ishikawa, E. Einarsson, S. Aikawa, T. Inoue, P. Zhao, M. Watanabe, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    Mater. Express 2 (2012) 213.
  22. "Diameter modulation of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, J. Shiomi, S. Chiashi, Z.K. Tang, S. Maruyama
    ACS Nano 6 (2012) 7472.
  23. "Feedstock diffusion and decomposition in aligned carbon nanotube arrays"
    R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    J. Heat. Trans. 134 (2012) 051023.
  24. "Enhanced thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol with single-walled carbon nanotube inclusions"
    S. Harish, K. Ishikawa, E. Einarsson, S. Aikawa, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 3885.
  25. "Diameter-controlled and nitrogen-doped vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    T. Thurakitseree, C. Kramberger, P. Zhao, S. Aikawa, S. Harish, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Carbon 50 (2012) 2635.
  26. "Channeling of charge carrier plasmons in carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, F. Roth, R. Schuster, R. Kraus, M. Knupfer, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, D.J. Mowbray, A. Rubio, T. Pichler
    Phys. Rev. B 85 (2012) 085424.
  27. "Deformable transparent all-carbon-nanotube transistors"
    S. Aikawa, E. Einarsson, T. Thurakitseree, S. Chiashi, E. Nishikawa, S. Maruyama
    Appl. Phys. Lett.  100 (2012) 063502.
  28. "Diameter controlled chemical vapor deposition synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    T. Thurakitseree, E. Einarsson, R. Xiang, P. Zhao, S. Aikawa, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12 (2012) 370.
  29. "Isotope-induced elastic scattering of optical phonons in individual suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    P. Zhao, E. Einarsson, R. Xiang, Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    Appl. Phys. Lett.  99 (2011) 093104.
  30. "Tunable separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by dual-surfactant density gradient ultracentrifugation"
    P. Zhao, E. Einarsson, G. Lagoudas, J. Shiomi, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama
    Nano Res.  4 (2011) 623.
  31. "Decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether during chemical vapour deposition synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    B. Hou, R. Xiang, T. Inoue, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, A. Miyoshi, S. Maruyama
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  50 (2011) 065101.
  32. "Facile fabrication of all-SWNT field-effect transistors"
    S. Aikawa, R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, E. Nishikawa, S. Maruyama
    Nano Res.  4 (2011) 580.
  33. "Simple fabrication technique for field-effect transistor array using as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    S. Aikawa, E. Einarsson, T. Inoue, R. Xiang, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, E. Nishikawa, S. Maruyama
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  50 (2011) 04DN08.
  34. "Parametric study of ACCVD for controlled synthesis of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, J. Okawa, T. Thurakitseree, Y. Murakami, J. Shiomi, Y. Ohno, S. Maruyama
    J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.  10 (2010) 3901.
  35. "Interband and plasma excitations in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite in inelastic x-ray and electron scattering"
    C. Kramberger, E. Einarsson, S. Huotari, T. Thurakitseree, S. Maruyama, M. Knupfer, T. Pichler
    Phys. Rev. B  81 (2010) 205410.
  36. "Polarization dependence of radial breathing mode peaks in resonant Raman spectra of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    Z. Zhang, E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, Y. Miyauchi, S. Maruyama
    Phys. Rev. B  81 (2010) 165442.
  37. "Controllable expansion of single-walled carbon nanotube dispersions using density gradient ultracentrifugation"
    P. Zhao, E. Einarsson, R. Xiang, Y. Murakami, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C  114 (2010) 4831.
  38. "Patterned growth of high-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes from dip-coated catalyst"
    R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, H. Okabe, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  49 (2010) 02BA03.
  39. "Interplay of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids and superconductive phase in carbon nanotubes"
    J. Haruyama, J. Gonzalez, E. Perfetto, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, H. Shinohara
    Europhys. Lett.  89 (2010) 27003.
  40. "Mechanism and optimization of metal deposition onto vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube arrays"
    H.M. Duong, K. Ishikawa, J. Okawa, K. Ogura, E. Einarsson, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C  113 (2009) 14230.
  41. "High-precision selective deposition of catalyst for facile localized growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, T.Z. Wu, E. Einarsson, Y. Suzuki, Y. Murakami, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    J. Am. Chem. Soc.  131 (2009) 10344.
  42. "Acetylene-accelerated alcohol catalytic CVD growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, J. Okawa, Y. Miyauchi, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C  113 (2009) 7511.
  43. "Growth mechanism and internal structure of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    E. Einarsson, M. Kadowaki, K. Ogura, J. Okawa, R. Xiang, Z. Zhang, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ikuhara, S. Maruyama
    J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.  8 (2008) 6093.
  44. "Loss-spectroscopy on sparse arrays of aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, M.H. Rümmeli, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Büchner, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, T. Pichler
    Phys. Status Solidi B  245 (2008) 2284.
  45. "Linear plasmon dispersion in single-wall carbon nanotubes and the collective excitation spectrum of graphene"
    C. Kramberger, R. Hambach, C. Giorgetti, M.H. Rümmeli, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Büchner, L. Reining, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, F. Sottile, K. Hannewald, V. Olevano, A.G. Marinopoulos, T. Pichler
    Phys. Rev. Lett.  100 (2008) 196803.
  46. "Thermal degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    H.M. Duong, E. Einarsson, J. Okawa, R. Xiang, S. Maruyama
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  47 (2008) 1994.
  47. "Vertically aligned C single-walled carbon nanotubes from no-flow ACCVD and their root growth mechanism"
    R. Xiang, Z. Zhang, K. Ogura, J. Okawa, E. Einarsson, Y. Miyauchi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  47 (2008) 1971.
  48. "Growth deceleration of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: Catalyst deactivation or feedstock diffusion controlled?"
    R. Xiang, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, G. Luo, W. Qian, F. Wei, M. Kadowaki, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C  112 (2008) 4892.
  49. "Growth dynamics of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes from in situ measurements"
    E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, M. Kadowaki, S. Maruyama
    Carbon  46 (2008) 923.
  50. "Direct observation of transition from Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid states to superconductive phase in carbon nanotubes"
    M. Matsudaira, J. Haruyama, N. Murata, Y. Yagi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, T. Sugai, H. Shinohara
    Physica E  40 (2008) 2299.
  51. "Meissner effect in honeycomb arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes"
    N. Murata, J. Haruyama, Y. Ueda, M. Matsudaira, H. Karino, Y. Yagi, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama, T. Sugai, N. Kishi, H. Shinohara
    Phys. Rev. B  76 (2007) 245424.
  52. "Revealing the small-bundle internal structure of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films"
    E. Einarsson, H. Shiozawa, C. Kramberger, M.H. Rümmeli, A. Grüneis, T. Pichler, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C  111 (2007) 17861.
  53. "Anisotropy in the X-ray absorption of vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, H. Shiozawa, H. Rauf, A. Grüneis, M.H. Rümmeli, T. Pichler, B. Büchner, D. Batchelor, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Phys. Status Solidi B  244 (2007) 3978.
  54. "All-fiber pulsed lasers passively mode-locked by transferable vertically aligned carbon nanotube film"
    Y.-W. Song, E. Einarsson, S. Yamashita, S. Maruyama
    Opt. Lett.  32 (2007) 1399.
  55. "The third and fourth optical transitions in semiconducting carbon nanotubes"
    P.T. Araujo, S.K. Doorn, S. Kilina, S. Tretiak, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, H. Chacham, M.A. Pimenta, A. Jorio
    Phys. Rev. Lett.  98 (2007) 067401.
  56. "Polarization dependent optical absorption properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes and methodology for the evaluation of their morphology"
    Y. Murakami, E. Einarsson, T. Edamura, S. Maruyama
    Carbon  43 (2005) 2664.
  57. "Polarization dependence of the optical absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    Y. Murakami, E. Einarsson, T. Edamura, S. Maruyama
    Phys. Rev. Lett.  94 (2005) 087402.
  58. "Polarization dependence of resonant Raman scatterings from vertically aligned SWNT films"
    Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Phys. Rev. B  71 (2005) 085403.
  59. "Growth process of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    S. Maruyama, E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, T. Edamura
    Chem. Phys. Lett.  403 (2005) 320.
  60. "In situ alignment of carbon nanocoils and their field emission behavior induced by an electric field"
    E. Einarsson, D.W. Tuggle, J. Jiao
    Appl. Phys. A  79 (2004) 2049.
  61. "High-yield synthesis of carbon coils on tungsten substrates and their behavior in the presence of an electric field"
    J. Jiao, E. Einarsson, D.W. Tuggle, L. Love, J. Prado, G.M. Coia
    J. Mater. Res.  18 (2003) 2580.

Book Chapters

  1. "Applications in the field of information systems" (in Japanese) 「情報通信分野への応用」
    E. Einarsson and S. Ishihara
    in Nano–Micro Scale Mechanical Engineering 『ナノ・マイクロスケール機械工学』
    S. Ishihara, C. Kato, M. Mitsuishi, and S. Watanabe (Eds.)
    University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 2014.
    ISBN 978-4-13-062836-5
  2. "Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications"
    E. Einarsson and S. Maruyama
    in Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Photonic Applications
    S. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and J.H. Choi (Eds.)
    Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, 2013.