Our Research

We synthesize and characterize nanoscale materials (graphene, MoS2, single-walled carbon nanotubes, etc.) and investigate innovative applications of these materials. Our strengths are in chemical vapor deposition (CVD), Raman spectroscopy, and time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. Current topics of interest include wireless communications and 2D heterostructures.

Prof. Einarsson

Dr. Erik Einarsson

Assistant Professor

Department of Electrical Engineering
Department of Materials Design and Innovation

Work experience

University at Buffalo
Assistant Professor (2013 – present)
The University of Tokyo
Assistant Professor (2009 – 2013)
The University of Tokyo
JSPS Postdoctoral fellow (2007 – 2009)

Education

PhD — The University of Tokyo (2007)
Mechanical Engineering — Advisor: Prof. Shigeo Maruyama
MS  — Portland State University (2003)
Physics — Advisor: Prof. Jun Jiao
BS   — New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (2001)
Physics — Minor: Engineering Mechanics

Teaching

Course description: This course introduces the properties of electronic materials, with an emphasis on understanding those properties that are important for modern microelectronics. The course begins with a review of concepts from classical physics and quantum mechanics before going on to present essentials of crystal structure, reciprocal space, the free-electron theory of metals, and the band theory of solids. This leads to the introduction of the concept of a semiconductor, followed by carrier statistics, doping, and bandstructure. The course concludes with the theory of optical properties, and some examples of applications of semiconductors to electronic and photonic technologies.

Course description: This course will provide a unified perspective of inorganic/macromolecular and hybrid bonded materials with a focus on quantifying structure-property relationships. This course provides an overview of the role of chemical bonding and electronic structure on defining properties from an electronic structure perspective.

Course description: This course is intended to develop an understanding of the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic fields, with an emphasis on experience for the students in the lab. Topics covered include: electrostatics; magnetostatics; Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic waves in vacuum; plane waves; monochromatic waves; wave polarization; electromagnetic waves at the interface between two media; geometrical optics; guided waves and transmission lines; radiation and antennas; electromagnetic waves in anisotropic, gyrotropic and optically active media.

Course description: The goal of this course is to familiarize students with a variety of materials synthesis and characterization methods that are likely to be useful to (or encountered by) those pursuing experimental research in electrical engineering and/or solid-state materials science. Ideally, students would take this course just before or shortly after undertaking experimental laboratory research, i.e., as a senior undergraduate or first-year grad student.

This course begins with an introduction to various methods commonly used to synthesize metal and semiconductor thin-films. Physical and chemical deposition methods will be the dominant themes here. The focus will then shift to characterization of materials, first by microscopy and then by spectroscopy. Spectroscopic methods discussed will span most of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Current ANaMaLs

Arka Karmakar

Arka Karmakar

PhD Candidate

Graphene synthesis and THz applications

Fei Lu

Fei Lu

PhD Candidate

Transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures

Farah Vandrevala

Farah Vandrevala

PhD Candidate

Time-domain terahertz spectroscopy of materials

Florian Gollier

Florian Gollier

MS Student

Nanomaterial synthesis

Peter Lisker

Peter Lisker

MS Student

Nanomaterials for energy

Former ANaMaLs

Simran Shahi

Simran Shahi

MS – 2016
Syed Zain

Syed Zain

UG researcher – 2017
Mahima Ann Philip

Mahima Ann Philip

Research Student – 2016
Joe DeGolia

Joe DeGolia

UG researcher – 2015

To: University at Buffalo

Junsung Park

Junsung Park

MS – 2015

Results and Publications

Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications

  1. "Decoupling substrate thickness and refractive index measurement in THz time-domain spectroscopy"
    F. Vandrevala and E. Einarsson
    Opt. Express 22 (2018) 1697.
    doi:10.1364/OE.26.001697
  2. "Approaching completely continuous centimeter-scale graphene by copolymer-assisted transfer"
    A. Karmakar, F. Vandrevala, F. Gollier, M.A. Philip, S. Shahi, E. Einarsson
    RSC Advances 8 (2018) 1725.
    doi:10.1039/c7ra12328k
  3. "Carrier polarity engineering in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors by induced charges in polymer insulator"
    S. Aikawa, S. Kim, T. Thurakitseree, E. Einarsson, T. Inoue, S. Chiashi, K. Tsukagoshi, S. Maruyama
    Appl. Phys. Lett 112 (2018) 013501.
    doi:10.1063/1.4994114
  4. "Selective and confined growth of transition metal dichalcogenides on transferred graphene"
    F. Lu, A. Karmakar, S. Shahi, E. Einarsson
    RSC Advances 7 (2017) 37310.
    doi:10.1039/c7ra07772f
  5. "Influence of thickness on crystallinity in wafer-scale GaTe nanolayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy"
    C.J. Bae, J. McMahon, H. Detz, G. Strasser, J. Park, E. Einarsson, D.B. Eason
    AIP Advances 7 (2017) 035113.
    doi:10.1063/1.4978776
  6. "Lithographically Defined Plasmonic Graphene Antennas for Terahertz-band Communication"
    L. Zakrajsek, E. Einarsson, N. Thawdar, M. Medley, J.M. Jornet
    IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 15 (2016) 1553.
    doi:10.1109/LAWP.2016.2527001
  7. "Highly Stable and Tunable n-Type Graphene Field-Effect Transistors with Polyvinyl Alcohol Films"
    S.J. Kim, P. Zhao, S. Aikawa, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 7 (2015) 9702.
    doi:10.1021/acsami.5b01474
  8. "Equilibrium chemical vapor deposition growth of Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene"
    P. Zhao, S.J. Kim, X. Chen, E. Einarsson, M. Wang, Y.N. Song, H.T. Wang, S. Chiashi, R. Xiang, S. Maruyama
    ACS Nano 8 (2015) 11631.
    doi:10.1021/nn5049188
  9. "From isotope labeled CH3CN to N2 inside single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, T. Thurakitseree, E. Einarsson, A. Takashima, T. Kinoshita, T. Muro, S. Maruyama
    Nanoscale 6 (2014) 1525.
    doi:10.1039/c3nr04729f
  10. "Self-assembled microhoneycomb network of single-walled carbon nanotubes for solar cells"
    K.H. Cui, T. Chiba, S. Omiya, T. Thurakitseree, P. Zhao, S. Fujii, H. Kataura, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4 (2013) 2571.
    doi:10.1021/jz401242a
  11. "Spray coating as a simple method to prepare catalyst for growth of diameter-tunable single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, H.Q. Zeng, Y.Q. Su, X.C. Gui, T.Z. Wu, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, Z.K. Tang,
    Carbon 64 (2013) 537.
    doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2013.07.034
  12. "Investigation of non-segregation graphene growth on Ni via isotope-labeled alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition"
    P. Zhao, B. Hou, X. Chen, S.J. Kim, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Nanoscale 5 (2013) 6530.
    doi:10.1039/c3nr01080e
  13. "Self-limiting chemical vapor deposition growth of monolayer graphene from ethanol"
    P. Zhao, A. Kumamoto, S.J. Kim, X. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, Y. Ikuhara, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C 117 (2013) 10755.
    doi:10.1021/jp400996s
  14. "Reversible diameter modulation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by acetonitrile-containing feedstock"
    T. Thurakitseree, C. Kramberger, A. Kumamoto, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    ACS Nano 7 (2013) 2205.
    doi:10.1021/nn3051852
  15. "Carbon atoms in ethanol do not contribute equally to formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, B. Hou, E. Einarsson, P. Zhao, S. Harish, K. Morimoto, Y. Miyauchi, S. Chiashi, Z.K. Tang, S. Maruyama
    ACS Nano (2013) article ASAP.
    doi:10.1021/nn305180g
  16. "One-dimensional N2 gas inside single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, T. Thurakitseree, H. Koh, Y. Izumi, T. Kinoshita, T. Muro, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Carbon 55 (2013) 196.
    doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2012.12.026
  17. "Reduction of single-walled carbon nanotube diameter to sub-nm via feedstock"
    T. Thurakitseree, C. Kramberger, P. Zhao, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Phys. Status Solidi B 249 (2012) 2404.
    doi:10.1002/pssb.201200126
  18. "On the polarization-dependent Raman spectra of aligned carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, T. Thurakitseree, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Appl. Phys. A 109 (2012) 509.
    doi:10.1007/s00339-012-7305-8
  19. "Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity increase of aqueous nanofluid with single-walled carbon nanotube inclusion"
    S. Harish, K. Ishikawa, E. Einarsson, S. Aikawa, T. Inoue, P. Zhao, M. Watanabe, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    Mater. Express 2 (2012) 213.
    doi:10.1166/mex.2012.1074
  20. "Diameter modulation of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, J. Shiomi, S. Chiashi, Z.K. Tang, S. Maruyama
    ACS Nano 6 (2012) 7472.
    doi:10.1021/nn302750x
  21. "Feedstock diffusion and decomposition in aligned carbon nanotube arrays"
    R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    J. Heat. Trans. 134 (2012) 051023.
    doi:10.1115/1.4005703
  22. "Enhanced thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol with single-walled carbon nanotube inclusions"
    S. Harish, K. Ishikawa, E. Einarsson, S. Aikawa, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 3885.
    doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.03.001
  23. "Diameter-controlled and nitrogen-doped vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    T. Thurakitseree, C. Kramberger, P. Zhao, S. Aikawa, S. Harish, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Carbon 50 (2012) 2635.
    doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2012.02.023
  24. "Channeling of charge carrier plasmons in carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, F. Roth, R. Schuster, R. Kraus, M. Knupfer, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, D.J. Mowbray, A. Rubio, T. Pichler
    Phys. Rev. B 85 (2012) 085424.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.85.085424
  25. "Deformable transparent all-carbon-nanotube transistors"
    S. Aikawa, E. Einarsson, T. Thurakitseree, S. Chiashi, E. Nishikawa, S. Maruyama
    Appl. Phys. Lett.  100 (2012) 063502.
    doi:10.1063/1.3683517
  26. "Diameter controlled chemical vapor deposition synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    T. Thurakitseree, E. Einarsson, R. Xiang, P. Zhao, S. Aikawa, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12 (2012) 370.
    doi:10.1166/jnn.2011.5398
  27. "Isotope-induced elastic scattering of optical phonons in individual suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    P. Zhao, E. Einarsson, R. Xiang, Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    Appl. Phys. Lett.  99 (2011) 093104.
    doi:10.1063/1.3632076
  28. "Tunable separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by dual-surfactant density gradient ultracentrifugation"
    P. Zhao, E. Einarsson, G. Lagoudas, J. Shiomi, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama
    Nano Res.  4 (2011) 623.
    doi:10.1007/s12274-011-0118-9
  29. "Decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether during chemical vapour deposition synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    B. Hou, R. Xiang, T. Inoue, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, A. Miyoshi, S. Maruyama
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  50 (2011) 065101.
    doi:10.1143/JJAP.50.065101
  30. "Facile fabrication of all-SWNT field-effect transistors"
    S. Aikawa, R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, E. Nishikawa, S. Maruyama
    Nano Res.  4 (2011) 580.
    doi:10.1007/s12274-011-0114-0
  31. "Simple fabrication technique for field-effect transistor array using as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    S. Aikawa, E. Einarsson, T. Inoue, R. Xiang, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, E. Nishikawa, S. Maruyama
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  50 (2011) 04DN08.
    doi:10.1143/JJAP.50.04DN08
  32. "Parametric study of ACCVD for controlled synthesis of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, J. Okawa, T. Thurakitseree, Y. Murakami, J. Shiomi, Y. Ohno, S. Maruyama
    J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.  10 (2010) 3901.
    doi:10.1166/jnn.2010.2011
  33. "Interband and plasma excitations in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite in inelastic x-ray and electron scattering"
    C. Kramberger, E. Einarsson, S. Huotari, T. Thurakitseree, S. Maruyama, M. Knupfer, T. Pichler
    Phys. Rev. B  81 (2010) 205410.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.205410
  34. "Polarization dependence of radial breathing mode peaks in resonant Raman spectra of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    Z. Zhang, E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, Y. Miyauchi, S. Maruyama
    Phys. Rev. B  81 (2010) 165442.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.165442
  35. "Controllable expansion of single-walled carbon nanotube dispersions using density gradient ultracentrifugation"
    P. Zhao, E. Einarsson, R. Xiang, Y. Murakami, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C  114 (2010) 4831.
    doi:10.1021/jp910959s
  36. "Patterned growth of high-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes from dip-coated catalyst"
    R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, H. Okabe, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  49 (2010) 02BA03.
    doi:10.1143/JJAP.49.02BA03
  37. "Interplay of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids and superconductive phase in carbon nanotubes"
    J. Haruyama, J. Gonzalez, E. Perfetto, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, H. Shinohara
    Europhys. Lett.  89 (2010) 27003.
    doi:10.1209/0295-5075/89/27003
  38. "Mechanism and optimization of metal deposition onto vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube arrays"
    H.M. Duong, K. Ishikawa, J. Okawa, K. Ogura, E. Einarsson, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C  113 (2009) 14230.
    doi:10.1021/jp902708k
  39. "High-precision selective deposition of catalyst for facile localized growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, T.Z. Wu, E. Einarsson, Y. Suzuki, Y. Murakami, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    J. Am. Chem. Soc.  131 (2009) 10344.
    doi:10.1021/ja902904v
  40. "Acetylene-accelerated alcohol catalytic CVD growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, J. Okawa, Y. Miyauchi, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C  113 (2009) 7511.
    doi:10.1021/jp810454f
  41. "Growth mechanism and internal structure of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    E. Einarsson, M. Kadowaki, K. Ogura, J. Okawa, R. Xiang, Z. Zhang, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ikuhara, S. Maruyama
    J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.  8 (2008) 6093.
    doi:10.1166/jnn.2008.022
  42. "Loss-spectroscopy on sparse arrays of aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, M.H. Rümmeli, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Büchner, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, T. Pichler
    Phys. Status Solidi B  245 (2008) 2284.
    doi:10.1002/pssb.200879602
  43. "Linear plasmon dispersion in single-wall carbon nanotubes and the collective excitation spectrum of graphene"
    C. Kramberger, R. Hambach, C. Giorgetti, M.H. Rümmeli, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Büchner, L. Reining, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, F. Sottile, K. Hannewald, V. Olevano, A.G. Marinopoulos, T. Pichler
    Phys. Rev. Lett.  100 (2008) 196803.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.196803
  44. "Thermal degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    H.M. Duong, E. Einarsson, J. Okawa, R. Xiang, S. Maruyama
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  47 (2008) 1994.
    doi:10.1143/JJAP.47.1994
  45. "Vertically aligned C single-walled carbon nanotubes from no-flow ACCVD and their root growth mechanism"
    R. Xiang, Z. Zhang, K. Ogura, J. Okawa, E. Einarsson, Y. Miyauchi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
    Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  47 (2008) 1971.
    doi:10.1143/JJAP.47.1971
  46. "Growth deceleration of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: Catalyst deactivation or feedstock diffusion controlled?"
    R. Xiang, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, G. Luo, W. Qian, F. Wei, M. Kadowaki, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C  112 (2008) 4892.
    doi:10.1021/jp710730x
  47. "Growth dynamics of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes from in situ measurements"
    E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, M. Kadowaki, S. Maruyama
    Carbon  46 (2008) 923.
    doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2008.02.021
  48. "Direct observation of transition from Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid states to superconductive phase in carbon nanotubes"
    M. Matsudaira, J. Haruyama, N. Murata, Y. Yagi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, T. Sugai, H. Shinohara
    Physica E  40 (2008) 2299.
    doi:10.1016/j.physe.2007.12.005
  49. "Meissner effect in honeycomb arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes"
    N. Murata, J. Haruyama, Y. Ueda, M. Matsudaira, H. Karino, Y. Yagi, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama, T. Sugai, N. Kishi, H. Shinohara
    Phys. Rev. B  76 (2007) 245424.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.76.245424
  50. "Revealing the small-bundle internal structure of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films"
    E. Einarsson, H. Shiozawa, C. Kramberger, M.H. Rümmeli, A. Grüneis, T. Pichler, S. Maruyama
    J. Phys. Chem. C  111 (2007) 17861.
    doi:10.1021/jp071328i
  51. "Anisotropy in the X-ray absorption of vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes"
    C. Kramberger, H. Shiozawa, H. Rauf, A. Grüneis, M.H. Rümmeli, T. Pichler, B. Büchner, D. Batchelor, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Phys. Status Solidi B  244 (2007) 3978.
    doi:10.1002/pssb.200776167
  52. "All-fiber pulsed lasers passively mode-locked by transferable vertically aligned carbon nanotube film"
    Y.-W. Song, E. Einarsson, S. Yamashita, S. Maruyama
    Opt. Lett.  32 (2007) 1399.
    doi:10.1364/OL.32.001399
  53. "The third and fourth optical transitions in semiconducting carbon nanotubes"
    P.T. Araujo, S.K. Doorn, S. Kilina, S. Tretiak, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, H. Chacham, M.A. Pimenta, A. Jorio
    Phys. Rev. Lett.  98 (2007) 067401.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.067401
  54. "Polarization dependent optical absorption properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes and methodology for the evaluation of their morphology"
    Y. Murakami, E. Einarsson, T. Edamura, S. Maruyama
    Carbon  43 (2005) 2664.
    doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2005.05.036
  55. "Polarization dependence of the optical absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    Y. Murakami, E. Einarsson, T. Edamura, S. Maruyama
    Phys. Rev. Lett.  94 (2005) 087402.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.087402
  56. "Polarization dependence of resonant Raman scatterings from vertically aligned SWNT films"
    Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
    Phys. Rev. B  71 (2005) 085403.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.71.085403
  57. "Growth process of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
    S. Maruyama, E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, T. Edamura
    Chem. Phys. Lett.  403 (2005) 320.
    doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2005.01.031
  58. "In situ alignment of carbon nanocoils and their field emission behavior induced by an electric field"
    E. Einarsson, D.W. Tuggle, J. Jiao
    Appl. Phys. A  79 (2004) 2049.
    doi:10.1007/s00339-004-2674-2
  59. "High-yield synthesis of carbon coils on tungsten substrates and their behavior in the presence of an electric field"
    J. Jiao, E. Einarsson, D.W. Tuggle, L. Love, J. Prado, G.M. Coia
    J. Mater. Res.  18 (2003) 2580.
    doi:10.1557/JMR.2003.0361

Book Chapters

  1. "Applications in the field of information systems" (in Japanese) 「情報通信分野への応用」
    E. Einarsson and S. Ishihara
    in Nano–Micro Scale Mechanical Engineering 『ナノ・マイクロスケール機械工学』
    S. Ishihara, C. Kato, M. Mitsuishi, and S. Watanabe (Eds.)
    University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 2014.
    ISBN 978-4-13-062836-5
  2. "Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications"
    E. Einarsson and S. Maruyama
    in Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Photonic Applications
    S. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and J.H. Choi (Eds.)
    Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, 2013.
    doi:10.1533/9780857098627.1.26