Our Research

We synthesize and characterize nanoscale materials (graphene, MoS2, single-walled carbon nanotubes, etc.) and investigate innovative applications of these materials. Our strengths are in chemical vapor deposition (CVD), Raman spectroscopy, and time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. Current topics of interest include communications and energy harvesting/conversion.

Prof. Einarsson

Dr. Erik Einarsson

Assistant Professor

Department of Electrical Engineering

Work experience

University at Buffalo
Assistant Professor (2013 – present)
The University of Tokyo
Assistant Professor (2009 – 2013)
The University of Tokyo
JSPS Postdoctoral fellow (2007 – 2009)

Education

PhD — The University of Tokyo (2007)
Mechanical Engineering — Advisor: Prof. Shigeo Maruyama
MS  — Portland State University (2003)
Physics — Advisor: Prof. Jun Jiao
BS   — New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (2001)
Physics — Minor: Engineering Mechanics

Course description: This course introduces the properties of electronic materials, with an emphasis on understanding those properties that are important for modern microelectronics. The course begins with a review of concepts from classical physics and quantum mechanics before going on to present essentials of crystal structure, reciprocal space, the free-electron theory of metals, and the band theory of solids. This leads to the introduction of the concept of a semiconductor, followed by carrier statistics, doping, and bandstructure. The course concludes with the theory of optical properties, and some examples of applications of semiconductors to electronic and photonic technologies.

Course description: The goal of this course is to familiarize students with a variety of materials synthesis and characterization methods that are likely to be useful to (or encountered by) those pursuing experimental research in electrical engineering and/or solid-state materials science. Ideally, students would take this course just before or shortly after undertaking experimental laboratory research, i.e., as a senior undergraduate or first-year grad student.

This course begins with an introduction to various methods commonly used to synthesize metal and semiconductor thin-films. Physical and chemical deposition methods will be the dominant themes here. The focus will then shift to characterization of materials, first by microscopy and then by spectroscopy. Spectroscopic methods discussed will span most of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Current ANaMaLs

Arka Karmakar

Arka Karmakar

PhD Candidate

THz applications of graphene

Fei Lu

Fei Lu

PhD Candidate

Transition metal dichalcogenides

Farah Vandrevala

Farah Vandrevala

PhD Candidate

Time-domain terahertz spectroscopy

Mahima Ann Philip

Mahima Ann Philip

Research Student

Graphene transfer

Former ANaMaLs

Junsung Park

Junsung Park

MS – 2015

To: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Joe DeGolia

Joe DeGolia

UG researcher – 2015

To: University at Buffalo

Results and Publications

Submitted Manuscripts

    Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications

    1. "Lithographically Defined Plasmonic Graphene Antennas for Terahertz-band Communication"
      L. Zakrajsek, E. Einarsson, N. Thawdar, M. Medley, J.M. Jornet
      IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters in press.
    2. "Highly Stable and Tunable n-Type Graphene Field-Effect Transistors with Polyvinyl Alcohol Films"
      S.J. Kim, P. Zhao, S. Aikawa, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama
      ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 7 (2015) 9702.
      doi:10.1021/acsami.5b01474
    3. "Equilibrium chemical vapor deposition growth of Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene"
      P. Zhao, S.J. Kim, X. Chen, E. Einarsson, M. Wang, Y.N. Song, H.T. Wang, S. Chiashi, R. Xiang, S. Maruyama
      ACS Nano 8 (2015) 11631.
      doi:10.1021/nn5049188
    4. "From isotope labeled CH3CN to N2 inside single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      C. Kramberger, T. Thurakitseree, E. Einarsson, A. Takashima, T. Kinoshita, T. Muro, S. Maruyama
      Nanoscale 6 (2014) 1525.
      doi:10.1039/c3nr04729f
    5. "Self-assembled microhoneycomb network of single-walled carbon nanotubes for solar cells"
      K.H. Cui, T. Chiba, S. Omiya, T. Thurakitseree, P. Zhao, S. Fujii, H. Kataura, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama
      J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4 (2013) 2571.
      doi:10.1021/jz401242a
    6. "Spray coating as a simple method to prepare catalyst for growth of diameter-tunable single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      R. Xiang, H.Q. Zeng, Y.Q. Su, X.C. Gui, T.Z. Wu, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, Z.K. Tang,
      Carbon 64 (2013) 537.
      doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2013.07.034
    7. "Investigation of non-segregation graphene growth on Ni via isotope-labeled alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition"
      P. Zhao, B. Hou, X. Chen, S.J. Kim, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
      Nanoscale 5 (2013) 6530.
      doi:10.1039/c3nr01080e
    8. "Self-limiting chemical vapor deposition growth of monolayer graphene from ethanol"
      P. Zhao, A. Kumamoto, S.J. Kim, X. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, Y. Ikuhara, S. Maruyama
      J. Phys. Chem. C 117 (2013) 10755.
      doi:10.1021/jp400996s
    9. "Reversible diameter modulation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by acetonitrile-containing feedstock"
      T. Thurakitseree, C. Kramberger, A. Kumamoto, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
      ACS Nano 7 (2013) 2205.
      doi:10.1021/nn3051852
    10. "Carbon atoms in ethanol do not contribute equally to formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      R. Xiang, B. Hou, E. Einarsson, P. Zhao, S. Harish, K. Morimoto, Y. Miyauchi, S. Chiashi, Z.K. Tang, S. Maruyama
      ACS Nano (2013) article ASAP.
      doi:10.1021/nn305180g
    11. "One-dimensional N2 gas inside single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      C. Kramberger, T. Thurakitseree, H. Koh, Y. Izumi, T. Kinoshita, T. Muro, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
      Carbon 55 (2013) 196.
      doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2012.12.026
    12. "Reduction of single-walled carbon nanotube diameter to sub-nm via feedstock"
      T. Thurakitseree, C. Kramberger, P. Zhao, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
      Phys. Status Solidi B 249 (2012) 2404.
      doi:10.1002/pssb.201200126
    13. "On the polarization-dependent Raman spectra of aligned carbon nanotubes"
      C. Kramberger, T. Thurakitseree, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
      Appl. Phys. A 109 (2012) 509.
      doi:10.1007/s00339-012-7305-8
    14. "Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity increase of aqueous nanofluid with single-walled carbon nanotube inclusion"
      S. Harish, K. Ishikawa, E. Einarsson, S. Aikawa, T. Inoue, P. Zhao, M. Watanabe, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
      Mater. Express 2 (2012) 213.
      doi:10.1166/mex.2012.1074
    15. "Diameter modulation of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, J. Shiomi, S. Chiashi, Z.K. Tang, S. Maruyama
      ACS Nano 6 (2012) 7472.
      doi:10.1021/nn302750x
    16. "Feedstock diffusion and decomposition in aligned carbon nanotube arrays"
      R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
      J. Heat. Trans. 134 (2012) 051023.
      doi:10.1115/1.4005703
    17. "Enhanced thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol with single-walled carbon nanotube inclusions"
      S. Harish, K. Ishikawa, E. Einarsson, S. Aikawa, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
      Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 3885.
      doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.03.001
    18. "Diameter-controlled and nitrogen-doped vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      T. Thurakitseree, C. Kramberger, P. Zhao, S. Aikawa, S. Harish, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
      Carbon 50 (2012) 2635.
      doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2012.02.023
    19. "Channeling of charge carrier plasmons in carbon nanotubes"
      C. Kramberger, F. Roth, R. Schuster, R. Kraus, M. Knupfer, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, D.J. Mowbray, A. Rubio, T. Pichler
      Phys. Rev. B 85 (2012) 085424.
      doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.85.085424
    20. "Deformable transparent all-carbon-nanotube transistors"
      S. Aikawa, E. Einarsson, T. Thurakitseree, S. Chiashi, E. Nishikawa, S. Maruyama
      Appl. Phys. Lett.  100 (2012) 063502.
      doi:10.1063/1.3683517
    21. "Diameter controlled chemical vapor deposition synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      T. Thurakitseree, E. Einarsson, R. Xiang, P. Zhao, S. Aikawa, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
      J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12 (2012) 370.
      doi:10.1166/jnn.2011.5398
    22. "Isotope-induced elastic scattering of optical phonons in individual suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      P. Zhao, E. Einarsson, R. Xiang, Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
      Appl. Phys. Lett.  99 (2011) 093104.
      doi:10.1063/1.3632076
    23. "Tunable separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by dual-surfactant density gradient ultracentrifugation"
      P. Zhao, E. Einarsson, G. Lagoudas, J. Shiomi, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama
      Nano Res.  4 (2011) 623.
      doi:10.1007/s12274-011-0118-9
    24. "Decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether during chemical vapour deposition synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      B. Hou, R. Xiang, T. Inoue, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, A. Miyoshi, S. Maruyama
      Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  50 (2011) 065101.
      doi:10.1143/JJAP.50.065101
    25. "Facile fabrication of all-SWNT field-effect transistors"
      S. Aikawa, R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, E. Nishikawa, S. Maruyama
      Nano Res.  4 (2011) 580.
      doi:10.1007/s12274-011-0114-0
    26. "Simple fabrication technique for field-effect transistor array using as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      S. Aikawa, E. Einarsson, T. Inoue, R. Xiang, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, E. Nishikawa, S. Maruyama
      Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  50 (2011) 04DN08.
      doi:10.1143/JJAP.50.04DN08
    27. "Parametric study of ACCVD for controlled synthesis of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, J. Okawa, T. Thurakitseree, Y. Murakami, J. Shiomi, Y. Ohno, S. Maruyama
      J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.  10 (2010) 3901.
      doi:10.1166/jnn.2010.2011
    28. "Interband and plasma excitations in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite in inelastic x-ray and electron scattering"
      C. Kramberger, E. Einarsson, S. Huotari, T. Thurakitseree, S. Maruyama, M. Knupfer, T. Pichler
      Phys. Rev. B  81 (2010) 205410.
      doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.205410
    29. "Polarization dependence of radial breathing mode peaks in resonant Raman spectra of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      Z. Zhang, E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, Y. Miyauchi, S. Maruyama
      Phys. Rev. B  81 (2010) 165442.
      doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.165442
    30. "Controllable expansion of single-walled carbon nanotube dispersions using density gradient ultracentrifugation"
      P. Zhao, E. Einarsson, R. Xiang, Y. Murakami, S. Maruyama
      J. Phys. Chem. C  114 (2010) 4831.
      doi:10.1021/jp910959s
    31. "Patterned growth of high-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes from dip-coated catalyst"
      R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, H. Okabe, S. Chiashi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
      Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  49 (2010) 02BA03.
      doi:10.1143/JJAP.49.02BA03
    32. "Interplay of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids and superconductive phase in carbon nanotubes"
      J. Haruyama, J. Gonzalez, E. Perfetto, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, H. Shinohara
      Europhys. Lett.  89 (2010) 27003.
      doi:10.1209/0295-5075/89/27003
    33. "Mechanism and optimization of metal deposition onto vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube arrays"
      H.M. Duong, K. Ishikawa, J. Okawa, K. Ogura, E. Einarsson, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
      J. Phys. Chem. C  113 (2009) 14230.
      doi:10.1021/jp902708k
    34. "High-precision selective deposition of catalyst for facile localized growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      R. Xiang, T.Z. Wu, E. Einarsson, Y. Suzuki, Y. Murakami, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
      J. Am. Chem. Soc.  131 (2009) 10344.
      doi:10.1021/ja902904v
    35. "Acetylene-accelerated alcohol catalytic CVD growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      R. Xiang, E. Einarsson, J. Okawa, Y. Miyauchi, S. Maruyama
      J. Phys. Chem. C  113 (2009) 7511.
      doi:10.1021/jp810454f
    36. "Growth mechanism and internal structure of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      E. Einarsson, M. Kadowaki, K. Ogura, J. Okawa, R. Xiang, Z. Zhang, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ikuhara, S. Maruyama
      J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.  8 (2008) 6093.
      doi:10.1166/jnn.2008.022
    37. "Loss-spectroscopy on sparse arrays of aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes"
      C. Kramberger, M.H. Rümmeli, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Büchner, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, T. Pichler
      Phys. Status Solidi B  245 (2008) 2284.
      doi:10.1002/pssb.200879602
    38. "Linear plasmon dispersion in single-wall carbon nanotubes and the collective excitation spectrum of graphene"
      C. Kramberger, R. Hambach, C. Giorgetti, M.H. Rümmeli, M. Knupfer, J. Fink, B. Büchner, L. Reining, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, F. Sottile, K. Hannewald, V. Olevano, A.G. Marinopoulos, T. Pichler
      Phys. Rev. Lett.  100 (2008) 196803.
      doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.196803
    39. "Thermal degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      H.M. Duong, E. Einarsson, J. Okawa, R. Xiang, S. Maruyama
      Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  47 (2008) 1994.
      doi:10.1143/JJAP.47.1994
    40. "Vertically aligned C single-walled carbon nanotubes from no-flow ACCVD and their root growth mechanism"
      R. Xiang, Z. Zhang, K. Ogura, J. Okawa, E. Einarsson, Y. Miyauchi, J. Shiomi, S. Maruyama
      Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.  47 (2008) 1971.
      doi:10.1143/JJAP.47.1971
    41. "Growth deceleration of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays: Catalyst deactivation or feedstock diffusion controlled?"
      R. Xiang, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, G. Luo, W. Qian, F. Wei, M. Kadowaki, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
      J. Phys. Chem. C  112 (2008) 4892.
      doi:10.1021/jp710730x
    42. "Growth dynamics of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes from in situ measurements"
      E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, M. Kadowaki, S. Maruyama
      Carbon  46 (2008) 923.
      doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2008.02.021
    43. "Direct observation of transition from Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid states to superconductive phase in carbon nanotubes"
      M. Matsudaira, J. Haruyama, N. Murata, Y. Yagi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, T. Sugai, H. Shinohara
      Physica E  40 (2008) 2299.
      doi:10.1016/j.physe.2007.12.005
    44. "Meissner effect in honeycomb arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes"
      N. Murata, J. Haruyama, Y. Ueda, M. Matsudaira, H. Karino, Y. Yagi, E. Einarsson, S. Chiashi, S. Maruyama, T. Sugai, N. Kishi, H. Shinohara
      Phys. Rev. B  76 (2007) 245424.
      doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.76.245424
    45. "Revealing the small-bundle internal structure of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films"
      E. Einarsson, H. Shiozawa, C. Kramberger, M.H. Rümmeli, A. Grüneis, T. Pichler, S. Maruyama
      J. Phys. Chem. C  111 (2007) 17861.
      doi:10.1021/jp071328i
    46. "Anisotropy in the X-ray absorption of vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes"
      C. Kramberger, H. Shiozawa, H. Rauf, A. Grüneis, M.H. Rümmeli, T. Pichler, B. Büchner, D. Batchelor, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
      Phys. Status Solidi B  244 (2007) 3978.
      doi:10.1002/pssb.200776167
    47. "All-fiber pulsed lasers passively mode-locked by transferable vertically aligned carbon nanotube film"
      Y.-W. Song, E. Einarsson, S. Yamashita, S. Maruyama
      Opt. Lett.  32 (2007) 1399.
      doi:10.1364/OL.32.001399
    48. "The third and fourth optical transitions in semiconducting carbon nanotubes"
      P.T. Araujo, S.K. Doorn, S. Kilina, S. Tretiak, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama, H. Chacham, M.A. Pimenta, A. Jorio
      Phys. Rev. Lett.  98 (2007) 067401.
      doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.067401
    49. "Polarization dependent optical absorption properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes and methodology for the evaluation of their morphology"
      Y. Murakami, E. Einarsson, T. Edamura, S. Maruyama
      Carbon  43 (2005) 2664.
      doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2005.05.036
    50. "Polarization dependence of the optical absorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      Y. Murakami, E. Einarsson, T. Edamura, S. Maruyama
      Phys. Rev. Lett.  94 (2005) 087402.
      doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.087402
    51. "Polarization dependence of resonant Raman scatterings from vertically aligned SWNT films"
      Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, S. Maruyama
      Phys. Rev. B  71 (2005) 085403.
      doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.71.085403
    52. "Growth process of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes"
      S. Maruyama, E. Einarsson, Y. Murakami, T. Edamura
      Chem. Phys. Lett.  403 (2005) 320.
      doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2005.01.031
    53. "In situ alignment of carbon nanocoils and their field emission behavior induced by an electric field"
      E. Einarsson, D.W. Tuggle, J. Jiao
      Appl. Phys. A  79 (2004) 2049.
      doi:10.1007/s00339-004-2674-2
    54. "High-yield synthesis of carbon coils on tungsten substrates and their behavior in the presence of an electric field"
      J. Jiao, E. Einarsson, D.W. Tuggle, L. Love, J. Prado, G.M. Coia
      J. Mater. Res.  18 (2003) 2580.
      doi:10.1557/JMR.2003.0361

    Book Chapter

    1. "Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications"
      in Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Photonic Applications, S. Yamashita, Y. Saito, and J.H. Choi (Eds.)
      E. Einarsson and S. Maruyama
      Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, 2013.
      doi:10.1533/9780857098627.1.26