QUESTIONS FOR FIRST ORAL EXAM,† P439/749
1. What is the difference between allostasis and homeostasis?
2. How did Hans Selye discover the concept of the General Adaptation Syndrome?
3. What are the main characteristics of the stress response?
4. What are the three stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome?† What happens in each?
5. What kinds of problems occur if the stress response is activated chronically?
6. Where is the amygdala located, and what are some of its main functions?
7. Where is the septal area and what type of feelings does it promote?
8. Where is the hippocampus, and what are some of its major functions?
9. Where is the cingulate gyrus, and what is one of its functions?
10. Where is the hypothalamus?† What are 4 of its functions?
11. What is the major postganglionic neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS)?† The major hormone?† Where does the hormone come from?
12. Contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems with regard to their locations and functions.† Are they ever active at the same times?
13. How does the brain communicate with the posterior pituitary?† What are 2 hormones released from P.P.?
14. What are the functions of those two hormones?
15. How does the brain communicate with the anterior pituitary?† What are 4 of the hormones released from the A.P.?
16. What are glucocorticoids?† Where do they come from and what do they do?
17. What are CRF and ACTH?† Where is each produced?
18. What are the four chambers of the heart?† What is the direction of blood flow among them?
19. What are systole and diastole? When does the heart receive its own blood supply?
20. What is the sino-atrial node?† How does it work?
21. What is the atrioventricular node?† Why is its delay important?
22. Is the AV bundle fast- or slow-conducting?† What part of the heart does it innervate first?† Why is that important?
23. What are the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation on the heart?† Which neurotransmitter and which hormone mediate those effects?
24. What is the major effect of stimulation of the parasympathetic nerve?† What is the transmitter released at the end organs?
25. What are the functions of arteries, veins, capillaries, and the lymphatic system?†
26. Describe the muscle fibers of the heart. In what way are they interconnected?
27. What are the two main reasons that we need adequate blood pressure?
28. Is it a problem that capillaries are leaky? What causes the fluid that has exited from the capillaries to re-enter either the capillaries or the lymph system?
29. How is blood directed to muscles vs. the digestive system?†
30. What is the basic principle by which the kidney conserves water?
31. How does vasopressin help the kidney to conserve water?† What would happen if we didnít have vasopressin?
32. How does atherosclerosis develop?
33. In Jay Kaplanís study of monkeys, which two groups of animals got the most atherosclerosis?†
34. What is the difference between ventricular arrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation?
35. What processes in the mouth promote digestion?
36. What processes in the stomach promote digestion?
37. What processes in the small intestine promote digestion?
38. What process in the large intestine promotes digestion?
39. What is the function of insulin?† Where is it produced?
40. What do glucocorticoids, glucagon, epinephrine and norepinephrine do to mobilize energy?
41. What is Type 1 diabetes?
42. What is Type 2 diabetes?
43. What is the most common cause of peptic ulcers?† How are such ulcers treated?
44. Where do most ulcers form?† Why?
45. Why doesnít the digestive tract digest itself? (3 reasons)
46. How does stress affect ulcer formation?†
47. What are the effects of sympathetic N.S. stimulation of the intestines?† How can this affect irritable bowel syndrome?
48. What are the effects of CRF and urocortin on appetite?†
49. What is the effect of glucocorticoids on appetite?† How can one make sense out of the different effects of CRF and urocortin vs. glucocorticoids on appetite?†
50. What is leptin, and how does it affect appetite?