ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS FOR PREPARATION FOR WRITTEN EXAM
1. Did offspring of High-Licking/Grooming mothers have more or fewer glucocorticoid receptors in their hippocampus? What is the effect of that on responsiveness to stress in adulthood?
2. What was the effect of early human handling of pups born to Low-Licking/Grooming mothers? How about cross-fostering them to High-Licking/Grooming mothers?
3. What did Harry Harlow conclude from his studies of the development of baby monkeys that were reared with cloth and wire “mothers”? Why was this unexpected? How long-lasting were the effects of lack of social interaction?
4. Describe the conditions in orphanages 100 years ago. What was the main cause of the problem?
5. What is LHRH, and where does it come from?
6. What are FSH and LH and where do they come from?
7. What are the functions of FSH in females? Males?
8. What are the functions of LH in females? Males?
9. What are seminiferous tubules? What is the function of Sertoli cells? Leydig cells?
10. How many primary oocytes do girls have, going into puberty? How many will eventually be ovulated?
11. When do the first and second meiotic divisions occur in oocytes?
12. What are granulosa cells? Why don’t primary oocytes undergo their first meiotic division sooner?
13. What is the corpus luteum? What is its function? How did it get its name?
14. Why does the major oocyte in a given menstrual cycle secrete more and more estrogen, even though FSH is declining because of negative feedback?
15. What is a major function of progesterone? What happens when its levels decline at the end of the luteal phase?
16. How does stress influence reproductive hormones? (3 ways)
17. What is the basic mechanism by which the parasympathetic system produces erections?
18. How does stress affect erections?
19. What kind of neural control elicits ejaculation?
20. What is odd about hyenas, compared to the rest of us? What is the effect of stress on erections in hyenas?
21. What is the effect of starvation on reproductive cycles?
22. Why is breast feeding an effective contraceptive? Describe the timing of nursing that maximizes this effect.
23. What is the Bruce-Parkes effect?
24. How detrimental is stress to female reproduction?
25. Describe the process by which testosterone masculinizes the brain.