I first searched Google for "Semper paratus" (quotes included) to find out what the branch of the armed forces is. The first result was a Wikipedia page for Semper paratus which explains that it is the motto of the U.S. Coast Guard.
I then did a Google search for "United States" AND "Coast Guard" AND "northern california". The first result was a Wikipedia page for Training Center Petaluma. On this page I found the answer: 4,000 student train there each year.
I first searched DuckDuckGo for "Georges Lemaître" (quotes included). The first hit was his Wikipedia page that tells me that he propose the Big Bang theory.
I then conducted a search for "big bang theory" AND astronomic* AND evidence. I used the asterisk so that all word endings would be considered (e.g. astronomical, astronomic, etc.). The first hit revealed that the evidence in question is known as the cosmic microwave background.
The search techniques using booleans really help to narrow down a search. I was able to find answers to both of these challenges on the first result of each search page. I will definitely be using AND, OR, and NOT for future searches, as this saves time going through results that may not be relevant to the task at hand.