Narratives, A to Z
Where One Might Find Them on the Web
Examples of them
Where One Might Find them Defined or Described or Exemplified
Judy Duchan, January 30, 2002
Accounts (Brice Heath, 1986) A speaker tells of an experience or provides information that is new to listener. This differs from recounts (see below) in that accounts are speaker generated and are judged only on truth value and logical progression. (eg., A child tells his parents of an afternoon spent at a friend's house as opposed to a parent asking the child to recount something the parent already knows.)
Acted out stories (e.g., Paley, 2001) http://www.creativedrama.com/creative.htm
Adventure stories (eg., Jack London) http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/London/Writings/DutchCourage/preface.html or
Allegories (Abrams, 1999, p. 5). A narrative in which the agents and actions are contrived by the author to make coherent sense on a literal level as well as on another level. Gulliver's Travels is an allegory for the political situation in England at the time.
Animal tales (told by children) http://www.kidlink.org/KIDPROJ/Kidwriters/Animals/Animtales.html
Antinarratives-A text that calls narrative structure and logic into question
Fifth graders' autobiographies (portfolios): http://www.millville.cache.k12.ut.us/Millville/Teachers/Carles/carles98-99/autobios98-99.htm
Bawdy stories (eg. Boccacio, tales from the south) http://www.ibiblio.org/bawdy/
Bedtime stories http://www.bedtime.com/
Bible stories http://www.essex1.com/people/paul/Bible.html
Bildungsroman (growth narrative) Hader, (1996) http://22.214.171.124/victorian/genre/hader1.html. The story of a single individual's growth and development within the context of a defined social order. The growth process, at its roots a quest story, has been described as both "an apprenticeship to life" and a "search for meaningful existence within society."
Campfire stories http://www.isd.net/srtobin/story/st-index.html
Case studies that tell people's stories http://home.epix.net/~renjilia/books.htm
Cautionary tales Native American: http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maya/coyjag.html
Chaos narratives (Frank). A narrative that lacks coherence. It is often disjointed lacking sequence. It comes from a difficulty in being able to tell one's story because of anxiety or discouragement.
Children's stories-stories told by children (e.g., Paley, 1981, 2001; Sutton-Smith, 1981)
Chronicals (American Heritage Dictionary, 1992, p, 341-342). (1) "An extended account in prose or verse of historical events, sometimes including legendary material, presented in chronological order and without authorial interpretation or comment" or (2) "A detailed narrative record or report."
Consciousness raising narratives Rejection of them: http://www.accessexpressed.net/Articles1.nsf/3cf90a23430db5a9852562840073ae37/9d4912d7f7cacd5e852568c1006a6486?OpenDocument
Conversational stories http://www.bubbe.com/
Cultural stories Ojibway: http://www.schoolnet.ca/aboriginal/kenora/index-e.html
Litsite Alaska: http://www.schoolnet.ca/aboriginal/kenora/index-e.html
Native American: http://www.kstrom.net/isk/stories/myths.html
Dialogic narratives (Bakhtin)-Interaction of several voices, consciousnesses or world views, none of which takes precedence over the others. http://www.textual.org/text/reviews/greer.htm
Diaries including stories
Disability narratives http://www.tell-us-your-story.com/
Dramas-scenic enactment of a story or narrative
Emancipatory narratives. Through dialogic retrospection: http://www.atee.org/htm/conferences/leipzig/abstracts/rdc1-nevin.html
And disability studies: http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/cjscopy/reviews/twoinone.html
Ethnographies that include stories
Fables (e.g., Aesop) http://www.pacificnet.net/~johnr/aesop/
Fairy tales (e.g., Grimm brothers, Hans Christian Anderson) http://www.inform.umd.edu/EdRes/ReadingRoom/Fiction/FairyTales/
Feminist narratives: Literary criticism: http://www.csudh.edu/dearhabermas/publpriv03.htm
Stories for and about young feminist readers: http://www.scils.rutgers.edu/~kvander/Feminist/femread.html
Latino feminist stories: http://www.ucsc.edu/currents/01-02/10-15/publications.html
Films as stories
First person accounts-told as if happening to the narrator, referring to a character as "I" as character
Folk tales (Propp) http://www.anu.edu.au/english/jems/lb/Theorists/propp.html
Formulaic stories (eg. Horatio Alger) http://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/magic/news/alger.html
Frame narrative (Prince)-A narrative in which another narrative is embedded. The frame narratives serves as a setting for a second narrative (also called embedded narrative).
Ghost stories http://theshadowlands.net/ghost/
Gothic novels http://members.aol.com/franzpoet/intro.html
Grand narratives. Jean-Francois Lyotard (1979) argues that grand narratives such as those underpinning science or the notion of historical progress are not tenable because there is no single path or vantage point that deserves choosing over others. All things are seen as relative, depending upon what vantage point is taken. (For definitions of grand narratives and their relation to postmodernism, see: http://www.man.ac.uk/Science_Engineering/CHSTM/teaching/hs124_c.htm
Heterodiegetic narrative-(Prince, 1987). The narrator is not a character in the narrative.
Histories (Taylor) http://www.ed.gov/pubs/parents/History/Story.html
Holocaust stories http://www.storypreservation.com/links-o2.html
Homodiegetic narrator-(Prince, 1987) The narrator is a character in the narrative.
Illness narratives (e.g., Becker, 1997; Frank, 1995, Kleinman, 1988) Arthur Frank, The wounded storyteller: http://endeavor.med.nyu.edu/lit-med/lit-med-db/webdocs/webdescrips/frank759-des-.html Questionnaire for eliciting illness narratives: http://medweb.pc.edu/staff/lori/questions.doc
Jokes as stories
Just so stories (Rudyard Kipling) http://www.candlelightstories.com/D001/JustSoPage.asp
Letters containing stories
Limericks as stories
Lost and/or untold stories (Parr, Romero)
Metanarratives-(Prince, 1987) A narrative with another narrative as one of its topics. A narrative about another narrative.
Minimal narratives-(Prince, 1987, p. 53) Narratives representing a single event (e.g., "She opened the door.")
Monologic narrative (Prince, 1987, p. 54) A narrative with a unifying voice or consciousness superior to other voices.
Moral tales (Aesop) http://www.pacificnet.net/~johnr/aesop/
Myths--(Prince, p. 56) A narrative, often associated with a religious belief and ritual, that expresses and justifies an exemplary aspect of life.
Nature stories http://www.naturalist.org/stories.htm
Nursery rhymes (Mother Goose) http://www.zelo.com/family/nursery/
Objective narratives (Prince, 1987, p. 67). A narrative characterized by the narrator's attitude of detachment toward the situations and events recounted.
Old wives tales http://www.ida.net/users/dhanco/tales.htm
Parables (Abrams, 1999, p. 7) A short narrative about human beings presented to stress a lesson.
Personal stories http://www.storypreservation.com/links-o2.html
Philosophical stories (Plato)
Postmodern narratives. Postmodernists argue that no Grand Narrative is possible (see grand narrative, above). They reject the idea of absolute truth, since truth depends on class, gender, ethnicity and ones vantage point. Postmodernist stories portray truth as relative. (For brief definitions of postmodernism and grand narratives see http://www.man.ac.uk/Science_Engineering/CHSTM/teaching/hs124_c.htm
Psychonarration (Prince, 1987, p. 76). A segment of discourse representing a character's thoughts (How terrible! It never should have come to that.")
Quest narratives (Frank, 1995). In this type of narrative, a person faces suffering head on. The narrative describes alternative ways of being ill and is built upon the idea that there is something to be gained from illness.
Recounts (Brice-Heath, 1986) A speaker retells experiences or information known to both teller and listener, and may be questioned in so doing. E.g., adults ask children to repeat a story or tell of an outing or experience they have had. There is an inherent power differential in this type of interaction
Restitution narratives (Frank, 1995) A narrative that describes a return to being well. "Yesterday I was healthy, today I am sick but tomorrow I will be healthy again".
Science fiction stories
Scripts as stories (Nelson,1986)
Shaggy dog stories http://sisko.awpi.com/Combs/Shaggy/
Sharing time (Michaels, 1981)
Skaz-(Prince, 1987, p. 87-88) A narrative told in oral style to give the illusion that the narrator is in the story and the one telling the story. An impression of oral narration created by a narrator who employs colloquial language, and conveys a "here and now" setting.
Story problems (e.g., math problems cast in story form) http://www.hawaii.edu/suremath/chemistryProblems.html
Subjective narratives-(Prince, 1987, p. 93). A narrative told from the point of view of a character's thoughts or feelings.
Suspense stories http://www.bookbrowser.com/Reviews/DeaverJeffrey/suspense.html
Stream of consciousness novels or narratives-(Prince, p. 92, William James, 1892) A mode of representation of human consciousness focusing on the flow of thought and stressing its associative nature. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/James/jimmy11.htm.
Tall tales http://www.hasd.org/ges/talltale/talltale.htm. A story full of exaggeration. It usually involves a superhuman main character. (e.g., Paul Bunyon in America)
Third person narratives-(Prince, 1987, p. 97) The narrator is not a character in the situations and events recounted (e.g., He was happy, then he lost his job and he became violent).
Tragedies-using stories and talking to children to help them cope with tragedies http://www.uccan.org/cim/010911.htm
Uncle Remus stories (Joel Chandler Harris) http://members.aol.com/dixieten3/remus1.html
Unfinished stories http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/type2250.html
War stories http://www.zen.co.uk/home/page/tony-j/ww1/
Westerns (cowboy stories) http://www.cattlepages.com/pubs/stories/index.asp
Abrams, M. (1999). A glossary of literary terms. 7th edition. NY: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (1992) Third edition. NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Becker, G. (1997). Disrupted lives: How people create meaning in a chaotic world. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Heath, S. (1986). Sociocultural contexts of language development.
In D. D. Holt (Ed.) Beyond language: Social and cultural factors in schooling language minority students (pp. 143-186). Sacramento, CA: California State Department of Education/Bilingual Education Office
Frank, A. (1995). The wounded storyteller: Body illness and ethics. Chicago, Il: University of Chicago Press.
James, William (1892). Stream of consciousness, First published in Psychology, Chapter XI. Cleveland, OH: World. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/James/jimmy11.htm
Kleinman, A. (1988). The illness narratives: Suffering, healing, and the human condition. NY: Basic Books.
Michaels, S. (1981). "Sharing time": Children's narrative style and differential access to literacy. Language in Society, 10, 423-442.
Paley, V. (1981) Wally's stories: Conversations in the kindergarten. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Paley, V. (2001). In Mrs. Tully's room: A childcare portrait. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Prince, G. (1987). Dictionary of narratology. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
Sutton-Smith, B. (1981). The folkstories of children. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Copyright © 2001 - 2010 by Judith Felson Duchan
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