Claude E. Welch, Jr., SUNY Distinguished Service Professor
Department of Political Science
520 Park Hall, University at Buffalo
Buffalo, N.Y. 14260-4120
Telephone: (716) 645-8434; fax (716) 645-2166
Home page: http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~cwelch/
Major research interests:
On the broadest level, I am interested in political transitions, particularly in developing countries, and most notably in Africa. My publications have come in the areas of African politics, human rights and civil-military relations.
My research for the past several years, and continuing into the future, involves the effectiveness of human rights non-governmental organizations. As key parts of civil society, NGOs have become central to the promotion and protection of human rights. I document this in several books, five already published (Human Rights and Development in Africa, 1984; Human Rights in Asia, 1990; Protecting Human Rights in Africa: Strategies and Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations, 1995; NGOs and Human Rights: Promise and Performance, 2001; and Economic and Social Rights in Canada and the United States, 2006). Currently under preparation is Protecting Human Rights Globally: Strategies and Roles of International NGOs.
B.A. (magna cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa), Harvard College, 1961
D. Phil. [Ph.D.], Oxford University, 1964
Academic Positions ‑ Department of Political Science, SUNY/Buffalo:
SUNY Distinguished Service Professor, 1989-present
Associate Professor, 1968‑1972
Assistant Professor, 1964‑1968
Director, Human Rights Program, housed in the Baldy Center for Law and Social Policy, 1987-
Academic Director, Global Perspectives Academy, 2008-
(In preparation) Protecting Human Rights Globally: Roles and Strategies of International NGOs (single-authored study that concentrates on the impact of NGOs such as Anti-Slavery, the World Council of Churches, the International Dalit Solidarity Network and the Coalition for an International Criminal Court on major on-going human rights issues, notably contemporary forms of slavery, racism, discrimination based on descent, and impunity from prosecution for major human rights abuses)
2009 Economic Rights in Canada and the United States, paperback edition of next entry.
2006 Economic Rights in Canada and the United States (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press) (book of original essays, co-edited with Rhoda Howard-Hassmann, Canada Research Chair in Global Studies and Political Science, Wilfrid Laurier University) (Nominated to the American Political Science Association by the University of Pennsylvania Press as the best book in human rights published that year; named by the US Human Rights Network as ‘one of three “notable contributions” in the field of human rights scholarship by our membership’ in 2008)
2001 NGOs and Human Rights: Promise and Performance (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), pp. 290. (Edited book of 16 chapters, all but one never published before, that compares and contrasts ways in which non-governmental human rights organizations have developed their goals, determined their effectiveness, and adopted and adapted their strategies)
2001 Protecting Human Rights in Africa (paperback edition of following book)
1995 Protecting Human Rights in Africa: Roles and Strategies of Non-Governmental Organizations (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), pp. 360. (Selected by Choice, , the academic unit of the American Library Association, as one of the outstanding academic books of 1995; short-listed by the African Studies Association for the Herskovits Prize for the best book in African studies; first book-length comparative analysis of the development and impact of grassroots human rights organizations south of the Sahara)
1990 Asian Perspectives on Human Rights (with Virginia Leary) (Boulder: Westview), pp. 320. (Edited volume of original papers presented at conferences organized by the editors.)
1987 No Farewell to Arms? Military Disengagement from Politics in Africa and Latin America (Boulder: Westview), pp. 224. (Comparison of problems of ensuring effective returns to the barracks of armed forces following coups d’état; based on comparative analysis of three West African and three Andean states.)
1984 Human Rights and Development in Africa (with Ronald I. Meltzer) (Albany: State University of New York Press), pp. 352. (Edited book of original essays; selected by Choice, the academic unit of the American Library Association, as one of the outstanding academic books of 1984)
1980 Anatomy of Rebellion (Albany: State University of New York Press), pp. 400. (A detailed examination and comparison of four large-scale peasant uprisings in Africa and Asia, to determine whether they were ‘failed revolutions’ or large-scale ‘rebellions’)
1978 Peasants in Africa (with Alan K. Smith) (Waltham: Crossroads Press), pp. 130. (Edited book of original essays; also published as a special issue [Vol. 20, No. 3] of African Studies Review.)
1976 Civilian Control of the Military: Theory and Cases from Developing Countries (Albany: State University of New York Press), pp. 337. (Edited book of original essays, many of them originally presented at a conference organized by the editor)
1974 Military Role and Rule (with Arthur K. Smith) (North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press), pp. 294. (A general framework of explanation for coups d’état and their consequences, based on detailed study of six countries)
1972 Revolution and Political Change (with Mavis Bunker Taintor) (North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press), pp. 3l3. (Edited book)
1970 Soldier and State in Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Military Intervention and Political Change (Evanston: Northwestern University Press), pp. 320. (Edited book of original essays commissioned by the editor.)
1967, 1971 (2nd ed.) Political Modernization: Readings in Comparative Political Change (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.), pp. 373.
1966 Dream of Unity: Pan-Africanism and Political Unification in West Africa (Ithaca: Cornell University Press), pp. 396. (This is a revised version of my doctoral dissertation that shows, through four case studies, the obstacles to greater unity between African countries with divergent colonial backgrounds.)
2004 “Human Rights and Development in Africa: NGOs”, in Paul Tiyame Zeleza and Phil McConnaughay, editors, Human Rights: The Role of Law and Development in Africa (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003), pp. 198-208.
2003a “Nongovernmental Organizations and their Potential for Conflict Reduction in Africa,” in Carolyn Pumphrey and Rye Schwartz-Barcott, eds., Armed Conflict in Africa (Methuen NJ: Scarecrow Press), pp. 113-138.
2003a “Human Rights Watch: American Liberal Values in the World Arena,” in Teamsters and Turtles? U.S. Progressive Political Movements in the 21st Century, edited by John C. Berg (Totowa NJ: Rowman and Littlefield), pp. 211-229.
2003b “Human Rights NGOs as the Motors of Change,” in Taj I. Hamad, Frederick A. Swarts and Anne R. Smart, eds., Culture of Responsibility and the Role of NGOs (St. Paul, MN: Paragon House), pp. 93-100.
2001 “Introduction” (pp. 1-24), “Conclusion” (pp. 261-80) and “Comparing major human rights NGOs: Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch” (pp. 85-118), chapters in Claude E. Welch, Jr., ed., NGOs and Human Rights: Promise and Performance (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press).
2000 ”Ratifying and Implementing ICERD: Weaknesses in State Reporting,” in Fons Coomans, Fred Grúnfeld, Ingrid Westendorp and Jan Willems, eds., Rendering Justice to the Vulnerable: Liber Amicorum in Honour of Theo van Boven (The Hague: Kluwer), pp. 287-295.
1999 “The African Charter and Freedom of Expression in Africa,” in Sandra Coliver, Paul Hoffman, Joan Fitzpatrick and Stephen Bowen, eds., Secrecy and Liberty: National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information (The Hague: Kluwer Law International), pp. 145-159.
1998 “Human Rights in Mazruiana,” in Omari H. Kokole, ed., The Global African: A Portrait of Ali A. Mazrui (Trenton: Africa World Press), pp. 173-183.
1994a “The OAU and Human Rights: Regional Promotion of Human Rights," in Yassin El-Ayouty, ed., The OAU after Thirty Years (Westport CT: Praeger), pp. 54-75.
1993 “Changing Civil-Military Relations," in Robert O. Slater, Barry M. Schutz and Steven R. Dorr, eds., Global Transformation and the Third World (Boulder: Lynne Rienner), pp. 71-90.
1991 "The Military and Social Integration in Ethiopia," in Henry Dietz, Jerrold Elkin, and Maurice Roumani, eds., Ethnicity, Integration, and the Military (Boulder: Westview), pp. 151-78.
1990a "The Military Factor in West Africa: Leadership and Regional Development," in Stephen Wright and Julius Okolo, eds., West Africa: Regional Cooperation and Development (Boulder: Westview), pp. 157-83.
1990b "É l Systems," in Anton Bebler and Jim Seroka, eds., Contemporary Political Systems: Classifications and Typologies (Boulder: Lynne Reiner), pp. 281-97.
1990c "Force and Legitimacy in Africa," in Reuven Gal and Thomas C. Wyatt, eds., Legitimacy and Commitment in the Military (Westport: Greenwood Press), pp. 121-139.
1990d "Human Rights in Francophone Africa," in Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na`im and Francis M. Deng, eds., Human Rights in Africa: Cross-Cultural Perspectives (Washington: Brookings Institution), pp. 184-212.
1988a "Obstacles to Disengagement and Democratization: Military Regimes in Benin and Burkina Faso," in Constantine Danopoulos, ed., The Decline of Military Regimes: The Civilian Influence (Boulder: Westview), pp. 25-44.
1988b "The University at Buffalo Program for New Faculty," in Emily C. Wadsworth, ed., Professional and Organizational Development: A Handbook for New Practitioners (Stillwater OK: New Forum Press for Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education), pp. 109-114. (With Norma Henderson, Frank Schimpfhauser, and Norman Solkoff)
1988c "Yambo Oulouguem and His Times: Aspects of the Literature of Violence," in Keith E. Baird and Jean-François Gounard, eds., Commentaries on a Creative Encounter (Albany: New York African-American Institute, 1988), pp. 47-51.
1987 "Military Regimes in Africa," in Zaki Ergas, ed., The African State in Transition (New York: St. Martin's), pp. 191‑215.
1986a "The Evolution of Military Forces in Africa," in Bruce E. Arlinghaus and Pauline H. Baker, eds., African Armies: Evolution and Capabilities (Boulder: Westview), pp. 13‑31.
1986b "Military Disengagement from Politics: Incentives and Obstacles in Political Change," in S.J. Baynham, ed., Military Power and Politics in Black Africa (London: Croom Helm), pp. 67‑96.
1986c "Instructional Development: An Intensive, Interdisciplinary Approach Directed at New Faculty," in Improving University Teaching (University of Maryland: Improving University Teaching), pp. 594‑602.
1984 "Emerging Patterns of Civil‑Military Relations in Africa: Radical Coups d'État and Political Stability," in Bruce E. Arlinghaus, ed., African Security Issues: Sovereignty, Stability and Solidarity (Boulder: Westview Press), pp. 126‑39.
1981 "What is Political Revolution?" in Richard M. Fulton, ed., The Revolution that Wasn't: A Contemporary Assessment of 1776 (Port Washington: Kennikat Press), pp. 71‑86.(Republished version of the introductory chapter of Revolution and Political Change.)
1978 "Civilian Control, Military ‘Professionalism,' and the Expert-Counterpart Relationship: Theory and Cases from Africa," in Irving J. Spitzberg, Jr., ed., Expertise and the New International Order (Boulder: Westview Press), pp. 213‑27.
1977a "Obstacles to Peasant Warfare in Africa," in Smith and Welch, Peasants in Africa, pp. 121‑30.
1977b "Warrior, Rebel, Guerrilla, and Putschist: Four Aspects of Political Violence," in Ali Mazrui, ed., The Warrior Tradition in Africa (Leiden: Brill, 1977), pp. 81‑98.
1976a "The Organization of African Unity," in Helen Kitchen, ed., Africa: From Mystery to Maze (Lexington: D.C. Heath) pp. 195‑217. (Commissioned by the Commission on Critical Choices).
1976b "Civilian Control of the Military: Myth and Reality," in Welch, Civilian Control, pp. 1‑41.
1976c "Two Strategies of Civilian Control," in Welch, Civilian Control, pp. 313‑27.
1975 "The OAU and International Recognition: Lessons from Uganda," in Yassin El-Ayouty, ed., The Organization of African Unity after Ten Years (New York: Praeger), pp. 103‑17.
1974a "Personalism and Corporatism in African Armies," in Catherine Kelleher, ed., Political‑Military Systems (Beverly Hills: Sage), pp. 125‑45.
1974b "The African Military: Predatory Militarists or Modernizing Patriots?" in Steffen W. Schmidt and Gerald A. Dorfman, eds., Soldiers and Politics (Los Altos: Geron‑X), pp. 55‑68.
1971a "Cincinnatus in Africa: The Prospects for Military Withdrawal from Politics," in Michael F. Lofchie, ed., The State of the Nations: Constraints on Development in Independent Africa (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press), pp. 215‑37.
1971b "The African Military and Political Development," in Henry Bienen, ed., The Military and Modernization (Chicago: Aldine), pp. 212‑33.
1969 "Federalism and Political Attitudes in West Africa," in Kenneth Kirkwood, ed., African Affairs III (St. Antony's Papers, London: Oxford University Press), pp. 35‑50.
1967 "The Challenge of Change: Japan and Africa," in Herbert J. Spiro, ed., Patterns of African Development (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall), pp. 53‑90.
Articles: (Refereed journals)
2009 “Defining Contemporary Forms of Slavery: Updating a Venerable NGO,” Human Rights Quarterly 31 (February 2009), 70-128.
2003a “Human Rights NGOs and the Rule of Law in Africa,” Journal of Human Rights 2 (September 2003), 315-327.
2003b “Multinational Corporations and the Ethics of Global Responsibility: Problems and Possibilities,” Human Rights Quarterly 25, 4 (November 2003), 965-989 (with Mahmood Monshipouri and Evan T. Kennedy). To be reprinted in David Kinley, ed., Human Rights and Corporations (Ashgate Publishing, date not yet set).
2001a “The Search for International Human Rights and Justice: Coming to Terms with the New Global Realities,” Human Rights Quarterly 23, 2 (May), pp. 370-401 (with Mahmood Monshipouri).
2001b “Mobilizing Morality: The World Council of Churches’ Program to Combat Racism,” Human Rights Quarterly 23, 4 (November), pp. 863-910.
2001c “Taking rights seriously: citizen action through NGOs,” Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 19, 2 (June 2001), pp. 119-122.
2000 “Human rights, environment and the Ogoni: Strategies for non-governmental organizations,” Buffalo Environmental Law Journal 6, pp. 251-257.
1998 “The African Charter and Freedom of Expression in Africa,” Buffalo Human Rights Law Review, 4, pp. 101-122 [also appears as book chapter above].
1995a "Civil-Military Agonies in Nigeria: Pains of an Unaccomplished Transition," Armed Forces & Society, 21, 4 (summer 1995), pp. 593-614.
1995b “The Ogoni and Self-Determination: Increasing Violence in Nigeria,” Journal of Modern African Studies, 23, 4 (December 1995), pp. 635-649.
1994a "15th Session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights," Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights 12, 3 (August), pp. 331-334 (with Gerd Oberleitner).
1994b “Education and Political Development: Africa since Independence" (with Gail P. Kelly), Africana Journal, Vol. XVI, pp. 3-18.
1993 "Human Rights and African Women: A Comparison of Protection under Two Major Treaties," Human Rights Quarterly 15, 3 (August), pp. 549-74.
1992a "The African Commission on Human Rights: A Five-Year Report and Assessment," Human Rights Quarterly 14, 1 (February), pp. 43-61.
1992b "Military Disengagement from Politics: Paradigms, Processes or Random Events?", Armed Forces & Society 18, 3 (May), pp. 323-42.
1991a "The Single Party Phenomenon in Africa," Transafrica Forum 8, 3, pp. 85-94.
1991b "The Organisation of African Unity and the Promotion of Human Rights," Journal of Modern African Studies 29, 4 (December), pp. 535-55.
1986 "Ethnic Factors in African Armies," Ethnic and Racial Studies (July), pp. 321‑34.
1985 "Civil‑Military Relations: Perspectives from the Third World," Armed Forces & Society 11, 2, pp. 183‑97.
1984a "Symposium on Beyond Empire and Revolution," Studies in Comparative International Development 19, 2, pp. 59‑77 (with Irving Louis Horowitz and Augustus Richard Norton).
1984b "Military Rule, Rural Perspectives, and Development Administration in Africa," Rural Africana 18 (Winter), pp. 17‑26.
1984c "The Military and Political Development: Reflections on a Score of Years, and Several Score of Studies," Issue 13, pp. 41‑4.
1983 "Military Disengagement from Politics: Lessons from West Africa," Armed Forces & Society 9, 4 (Summer), pp. 541‑54.
1981 "The OAU and Human Rights: Towards a New Definition," Journal of Modern African Studies 19, 3 (September), pp. 401‑20.
1978a "Civil‑Military Relations in Commonwealth States: The Transfer and Transformation of British Models," Journal of Developing Areas, 12, 2 (January), pp. 153‑70.
1978b "Long-Term Consequences of Military Rule: Breakdown and Extrication," Journal of Strategic Studies I, 2 (September), pp. 139‑51.
1978c "Military Intervention in Africa," Issue 8, 4 (Winter), pp. 40‑2.
1978c "The Right of Association in Ghana and Tanzania," Journal of Modern African Studies, 16, 4 (December), pp. 639‑56.
1977a "Peasants as a Focus in African Studies, African Studies Review 20, 3 (December), pp. 1‑5. (see above, books).
1977b "Obstacles to Peasant Warfare in Africa," Also published in book form in Peasants in Africa., pp. 121‑30.
1977c "Warrior, Rebel, Guerrilla, and Putschist: Four Aspects of Political Violence," Journal of Asian and African Studies, 12 (January-April), pp. 81‑98. Also published in book form in The Warrior Tradition in Africa (see above, books).
1975a "Ideological Foundations of Revolution in Kwilu," African Studies Review 18, 2 (September), pp. 116‑28.
1975b "Continuity and Discontinuity in African Military Organization," Journal of Modern African Studies 12, 2 (July), pp. 224‑45.
1975c "Les coups d'état militaires en Afrique," L'Afrique et l'Asie modernes, No. 106, pp. 29‑40. (Written originally in French)
1974 "The Dilemma of Military Withdrawal from Politics: Some Considerations from Tropical Africa," African Studies Review 17, 1 (April), pp. 213‑28.
1969 "Return to Civilian Rule in Ghana," Current History 56, No. 333, (May), pp. 286‑91. (Reprinted, in part, in Issues Today, 2, 8, pp. 18-19.)
1968a "Soldier and State in Africa," Journal of Modern African Studies 5, 3 (October), pp. 305‑22.
Numerous book reviews and other short articles in American Political Science Review, Choice, Journal of Developing Areas, West Africa, and other journals. (See annual Faculty Activity Reports, on file in Dean’s office, for details.)
Anti-Slavery International, in David Forsythe, ed., Encyclopedia of Human Rights (Oxford University Press: New York, 2009), Vol. 1, pp. 78-87.
Human Rights Watch, in David Forsythe, ed., Encyclopedia of Human Rights (Oxford University Press: New York, 2009), Vol. 2, pp. 478-485.
Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices that Affect the Health of Women and Children, in David Forsythe, ed., Encyclopedia of Human Rights (Oxford University Press: New York, 2009), Vol. 3, pp. 62-66.
World Council of Churches, in David Forsythe, ed., Encyclopedia of Human Rights (Oxford University Press: New York, 2009), Vol. 5, pp. 382-387.
“The African Court and the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights,” in Herbert M. Kritzer, ed., Legal Systems of the World: A Political, Social, and Cultural Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2002), Vol. I, pp. 14-18.
"Amnesty International," "Genocide" and "Human Rights," Encyclopedia Americana 1994 edition, respectively Vol. 1, p. 751, Vol. 12, p. 424, and Vol. 14, pp. 552C‑552H.
"Civil-Military Relations," "Coup d'État," and "Political Control of Armed Forces," International Military and Defense Encyclopedia (New York: Brassey/Macmillan, 1993), respectively pp. 507-511, 664-667, and 2166-2169.
"Coup d'État," The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 204-205, and in second edition (2001), pp. 181-182.
Ghana, Encyclopedia Americana Annual, 1973‑76 and Dahomey, Niger and Togo, Encyclopedia Americana Annual, 1967‑72.
Articles: (non‑refereed journals or other publications)
2008 “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights at Sixty,” America [monthly publication of the U.S. Department of State], November 2008. Available at http://www.america.gov/st/hr-english/2008/November/20081119115005xjyrrep0.5346033.html. Published also in Spanish, French, Russian, and Farsi [Persian] translations.
2000 “Roma Human Rights Spotlighted in Geneva,” Human Rights Tribune 7 (September), pp. 17-18.
1996 “The Martyrdom of Ken Saro-Wiwa and the Future of Ogoni Self-Determination,” Fourth World Bulletin, 1-2 (Spring/Summer 1995), pp. 5-16 (with Marc Sills).
1993 "Laissez-Faire Follies," Society, 30, 4 (May-June 1993), pp. 4-11 (with Blake Strack). (This and four other articles in the same issue were originally presented at a conference I helped organize on the politics and economics of conversion of military expenditures.)
1992 "Breaking New Ground," West Africa, 9-15 November 1992, p. 1920.
1991a "Promoting Human Rights," West Africa, 10 November 1991, pp. 1840-1.
1991b "International Human Rights: A Guide to Collection Development," Choice 28, 5 (January 1991), pp. 741-747.
1988a "Making Progress in Human Rights," West Africa, No. 3673 (11 January 1988), pp. 4‑5.
1988b "The University at Buffalo Program for New Faculty," in Emily C. Wadsworth, ed., Professional and Organizational Development: A Handbook for New Practitioners (Stillwater OK: New Forum Press for Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education), pp. 109-114.(with Norma Henderson, Frank Schimpfhauser, and Norman Solkoff).
1988c "Yambo Oulouguem and His Times: Aspects of the Literature of Violence," in Keith E. Baird and Jean-François Gounard, eds., Commentaries on a Creative Encounter (Albany: New York African-American Institute, 1988), pp. 47-51.
1986a "Instructional Development: An Intensive, Interdisciplinary Approach Directed at New Faculty," in Improving University Teaching (University of Maryland: Improving University Teaching), pp. 594‑602.
1986b "Civil‑Military Relations,"Scan (Association of American Colleges), I, 4, pp. 5‑6.
1985 "Faculty Development Should Begin at the Beginning," SUNY News 14 (April), pp. F1, F4.
1984 "The Military and Political Development: Reflections on a Score of Years, and Several Score of Studies," Issue 13, pp. 41‑4.
1982 "International Human Rights: Dilemmas of Liberty and Development in Africa," SUNY News 11, 4 (April‑May), pp. F4‑5.
1978 "Military Intervention in Africa," Issue 8, 4 (Winter), pp. 40‑2.
1974 "Whither the Study of the Military in Politics," International Studies Notes, I, pp. 6‑7.
1972 "Praetorianism in Commonwealth West Africa," Journal of Modern African Studies 10, 2 (July), pp. 203‑221.
1971 "Revolutionary Tendencies in African Armies," Black Academy Review II, 3 (Fall), pp. 5‑21.
1970 "Military Intervention in Tropical Africa," Military Review 50, No. 5 (May), pp. 33‑46.
1968b "Africa's New Rulers," Africa Today (July), pp. 7‑11.
1968c "Ghana: The Politics of Military Withdrawal," Current History 54 (February), pp. 95‑100, 113‑14.
1966 "Shifting Authority in West Africa," Current History 52 (March), pp. 153‑58, 180.
1965 "The Gambia: Prospects for Independence," Africa Report (February), pp. 5‑9.
1964a "Zambia and Lesotho: The Transfer of Power," Africa Report (June), pp. 10‑11.
1964b "Is ‘Senegambia' Any Closer?" West Africa (March) (three articles).
1963a "Constitutional Confusion in Swaziland," Africa Report (April), pp. 7‑9.
1963b "Prospects for ‘Senegambia,'" Africa Report (January), pp. 21‑24.
Monographs and Consultant's Reports:
1998 “Civil-Military Relations: USAID’s Role” (with Johanna Mendelson); published by G/DG section of USAID, copies sent to all missions around the world. (For summary, see Democracy Report, Vol. 4, No. 22, July 1998, published by the Center for Democracy and Governance, USAID (http://www.usaid.gov/G/DG/.)
1991 "The Impact of Democratization on Civil-Military Relations," Sun Yat-sen Institute of Social Science and Philosophy, Academic Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
1990 "Military Rule and the Imperatives of Democracy," Nigerian Centre for Democratic Studies, Abuja, Nigeria.
1986 "Military Coups and Political Stability in Africa," Stuttgart: Defense Intelligence College and U.S. Army European Command.
1980a "The Foreign Policies of Major West African States, with Special Focus on Prospects for Political and Economic Relations with the Republic of Korea," Seoul: Institute of Foreign Affairs and National Security.
1980b "Civil‑Military Relations in Developing Countries," Seoul: Institute of Foreign Affairs and National Security.
Unpublished Conference Presentations:
2000 “Human Rights NGOs and Police Practice: Paradoxical Relationships,” International Police Executive Symposium, Ainring, Bavaria, Germany.
1999a “Behind Africa’s public health crises: Human rights abuses, cultural norms, and international marginalization,” Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta GA.
1999b “How effective are African human rights NGOs?”, University of Illinois Center for African Studies and College of Law conference on “Human Rights and Development in Africa” (scheduled for publication in 2004 by the University of Pennsylvania Press, in book edited by Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Phil McConnaughay)
1999e “NGOs and the Rule of Law: Lessons from Africa,” Georgia State University workshop on NGOs and the Rule of Law.
1998 “Assessing the Effectiveness of Human Rights NGOs,” Binghamton University conference on democratization and human rights.
1993a "Human Rights Issues Relating to the Transition to a Democracy: Implications for the Military," presented at Department of State-World Bank-OAU conference on "Democratization in Africa: The Role of the Military," Bujumbura, Burundi.
1993b "The Nigerian Military and Political Change," USEUCOM, Molesworth conference, England.
1993c "Democratization in Africa," George C. Marshall Center, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.
1992 "Human Rights, Democratization and NGOs: Contrasts between Africa and Eastern Europe," presented at the Research Committee on Human Rights, International Political Science Association, Prague.
1988 "Transitions to Democracy? Pitfalls of the O'Donnell‑Schmitter Model," presented at the conference on Armed Forces and Democratic Consolidation, Madrid (sponsored by the Tinker Foundation and the Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset).
1987a "Dynamics of Human Rights in West Africa: Redefining the Heritage of Colonial Rule," presented at the Canadian Association of African Studies, Edmonton, and at the International Political Science Association meeting on human rights, The Hague.
1987b "`Development’ in Africa: Documentation of an Emerging Right," conference on human rights documentation, Maseru, Lesotho (sponsored by the Institute of Southern African Studies [National University of Lesotho] and Human Rights Internet [Harvard Law School]).
1985a "Military Disengagement from Politics: Framework for Comparative Analysis," presented at the 13th triennial Congress of the International Political Science Association, Paris.
1985b "Obstacles and Incentives to Military Disengagement from Politics," presented at the annual conference of the International Studies Association, Washington.
1985c "L'intervention militaire" (written and presented in French), UNESCO-sponsored conference, Istanbul.
1985d "International Economic Constraints and Political Consequences: Lessons from Africa and Latin America," New York State Joint Conference on Asia, Africa, and the Americas, Rochester Institute of Technology.
1983a "Beating a Hasty Retreat: Military Disengagement from Politics," presented at the regional meeting of the Inter‑University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society, West Point.
1980 "Ataturks of Africa," paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society, Chicago.
1979a "The Military: Product, Facilitator, or Antagonist of Socio-Economic Development," invited paper presented at the 11th triennial Congress of the International Political Science Association, Moscow.
1979b "Fusion, Fission and Coordination: Emerging Patterns of Civil-Military Relations in West Africa," invited paper presented at the annual meeting of the African Studies Association, Los Angeles.
Invited Professional Addresses:
Invited presentation on the strengths and weaknesses of the new international court established to try Sierra Leone war criminals, conference on military coups in West Africa and regional instability, sponsored by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the U.S. Department of State and the National Intelligence Council, Washington DC, March 5, 2004.
“Democratization, Civil Society and Human Rights: Legacies, Challenge and Opportunities,” Invited keynote address and panelist, international conference on democratization, civil society and human rights, sponsored by Nanhua University and various foundations, Yunclin Hsien, Chiayi Province, Taiwan, December 5, 2003.
“African Militaries in the 21st Century,” Meridian House Conference, Washington DC, June 28-29, 2001.
“Privatization of Security Forces in Africa: Disciplinary Perspectives.” Interdisciplinary conference organized by Defense Intelligence Agency, Washington DC, June 1997.
"The ‘Professional’ Soldier in ‘New’ Nations: Can Western Scholars Avoid Ethnocentrism?" Keynote address, Northeast regional meeting of the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society, Albany, April 1985.
"Is the Rule of the Colonels Inevitable?" Keynote address, annual conference of NYASA (New York African Studies Association), Syracuse, April 1984.
Invited lectures, among others, at Harvard University; Oxford University; Beijing University; Academia Sinica, Taiwan; National Defense College (Korea; Philippines); several universities in northern India; University of Graz; Scandinavian Institute of African Studies; Institute of Commonwealth Studies (London); Centre for Democratic Studies (Abuja, Nigeria); Center for Political Studies (Cairo); Chautauqua Institution (Chautauqua, New York); National Defense University and Defense Intelligence Agency (Washington); Foreign Service Institute (Washington); Institute for Military Assistance (Fort Bragg); Joint Flag Officers' War-Fighting Course (Fort Walton Beach), Air War College, and Air Command and Staff College (both at Maxwell AFB); African Studies Program, UCLA; African Studies Program, Northwestern University; African Studies Program, Boston University; Dalhousie University; USIS-sponsored lectures in Benin, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo.
Major teaching responsibilities
African Politics (PSC 370, 520)
Civil-military relations (PSC 438, 646)
Human rights (PSC 430, 650)
Political change (PSC 625)
World Civilizations since 1500 (UGC 112)
In addition, I have taught special seminars for the University Honors Program (courses on Africa through Novels and Films, on International Human Rights, and on Women's and Men's Language), courses in the Global Perspectives Academy, independent study, thesis and dissertation guidance, and miscellaneous other courses.
Research, Symposium and Internship Grants (Political Science and Human Rights):
Lifetime Achievement Research award, $10,000 from the State University of New York Research Foundation, 2006 (given in connection with the first-ever TIAA-CREF/SUNY Research Foundation Lifetime Achievement Award; see below under “Other Honors”)
“Protecting Human Rights Globally,” $1,000 from the Baldy Center on Law and Social Policy for support of graduate assistant, 2005.
“Sleeping Under Bridges: Economic Rights in the United States and Canada,” $9,000 for support of a conference October 2003 from the Canadian Embassy; $5,804 from the Baldy Center on Law and Social Policy; $2,000 from the UB Committee on Canadian-American Studies).
“Assessing the Performance of Human Rights NGOs,” US Institute of Peace, grant 2000/01 ($36,000) (for research for preparation of Protecting Human Rights Globally, listed above under Books)
Workshop on the impact of non-governmental organizations, grant of $1,500 by the Baldy Center on Law and Social Policy, 1998 (this led to publication of NGOs and Human Rights: Promise and Performance, discussed above)
USAID’s programs in civil-military relations (study through ARD [Associates in Rural Development]), grant fall 1997 ($11,200). (See Consultant’s Reports, above)
Africa Regional Research grant, 1993-4 ($19,250 for travel and per diem costs for research in Ethiopia, Namibia, Nigeria and Senegal during academic year 1993/94, leading to publication of Protecting Human Rights in Africa, listed above under Books)
"African Human Rights NGOs," grant 1993/94 from US Institute of Peace ($25,000) (for research in preparation of Protecting Human Rights in Africa, listed above under Books)
"Refugee Status and Human Rights," supervisor for National Endowment for the Humanities Younger Scholars grant to Rachel I. Massey, summer 1993.
"Ethnic Violence, Human Rights, and Ideology," grants 1993 from "Conferences in the Disciplines" ($2,000) (with Newton Garver).
"Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice," National Endowment for the Humanities ($109,862) (for eight-week summer seminar for college teachers, June-August 1992, co-directed with Newton Garver).
"The African Commission on Human Rights," US Institute of Peace, October 1991-June 1992 ($15,000).
"Drafting the Preamble to the United Nations Charter," supervisor for National Endowment for the Humanities Younger Scholars grant to Mark Ruff, summer 1990.
"Summer Internship Program in International Organization," Ford Foundation ($180,000 for three years, 1991-93, with Virginia Leary; this was linked to the first-ever human rights law clinic established in the United States).
"Summer Internship Program in International Organization," planning grant 1989-90 from the Ford Foundation ($41,740) (with Virginia Leary); extended for 1990-91 ($45,127).
"Human Rights and Development in Asia," grants 1987 from "Conversations in the Disciplines ($2,500); Ford Foundation ($25,000 for travel costs for participants); Council on International Studies and Programs ($900); Faculties of Social Sciences and of Law and Jurisprudence ($1,500); and other University sources.
"Human Rights in South Asia," grant 1986 from "Conferences in the Disciplines" ($2,000) and Council on International Studies and Programs ($1,500).
"International Human Rights: Dilemmas of Liberty and Development," grants 1982 from the following (with Ronald I. Meltzer): 1) National Endowment for the Humanities ($10,000); 2) "Conversations in the Disciplines" ($2,000); 3) "Conferences in the Disciplines" ($2,000); 4) Research Development Funds ($2,000); 5) New York Council on the Humanities ($650); 6) U.B. Foundation ($120). These led to the publication of Human Rights and Development in Africa, listed above under books.
Travel grants, National Science Foundation and American Political Science Association and Faculty of Social Sciences, to present paper at the International Political Science Association meeting, Rio de Janeiro, 1982 ($750).
"Conversations in the Disciplines" grant 1977, Research Foundation of the State University of New York, for a conference, "Rural Communities and Political and Social Change in Asia and Africa" (with Roger DesForges) ($1,900).
Publication grant, Inter‑University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society, for partial support of Civilian Control of the Military ($1,000). This helped lead to the publication of Human Rights and Development in Africa, listed above under books.
Summer faculty research grant, 1975, National Endowment for the Humanities, for research on peasant rebellions ($2,000).
Institutional Grant, 1974, SUNY/Buffalo, for sponsorship of conference, "Civilian Control of the Military: Myth and Reality in Developing Countries" ($4,300).
Summer Fellowship and Grant in Aid, Research Foundation of the State University of New York, summer 1973, for research on peasant political mobilization ($1,729).
Summer Fellowship, Research Foundation of the State University of New York, 1972, for research on the military's role in governance ($1,475).
Conference grant, State University of New York, 1970, for convening a conference on higher education in Nigeria ($2,900).
Travel Grant, Research Foundation of the State University of New York, 1967, for International Congress of Africanists ($800).
Summer Fellowship, Research Foundation of the State University of New York, 1966, for research on military intervention and political change in Africa, ($1,400).
Grants‑in‑aid, State Department and State University of New York at Buffalo, 1967, to participate in Mediterranean seminar in Tunisia ($439).
Grant‑in‑aid, Hoover Institution on War, Peace, and Revolution, 1966, for research on the Rassemblement Démocratique Africain ($800).
Institutional grant from National Science Foundation funds, Summer, 1965, for research on the development of political parties in French‑speaking West Africa ($2,100).
Foreign Area Fellowship Program grant, July 1963‑July 1964, for field research in West Africa and completion of doctoral dissertation ($14,000).
Grants (University Service):
Program for Tenured Faculty, 1987 (Co‑Director); $24,500 from the State‑UUP Committee on Professional Development and the Quality of Working Life.
Lilly Endowment, Program for Non‑Tenured Faculty (Co‑Investigator), $50,000 annually for three years, 1987‑90.
Program for Faculty Development, 1986 (Co‑Director); $10,614 from the State-UUP Committee on Professional Development and the Quality of Working Life; $19,000 from the Office of the President.
Program for Faculty Development, 1985 (Co‑Director); $29,560 from the State-UUP Committee on Professional Development and the Quality of Working Life.
Program for Faculty Development, 1984 (Co‑Director); $28,000 from the Office of the President, Office of the Provost, and the State‑UUP Committee on Professional Development and the Quality of Working Life.
Conference on Teaching Quality, l984 (Chairman), State University of New York Instructional Development funds ($1,400).
OPTIONS (University outreach project on national security), 1989-90, funds to establish speakers' bureau on nuclear war prevention ($3,500 1989-90; $1,750 1990-91)
Grant Reviewer: National Science Foundation; MacArthur Foundation; Grawemeyer Foundation; United States Institute of Peace; others.
Overseas Travel and Research: (among others)
Cameroon, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Lesotho, Namibia, Nigeria, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa, Togo, Tunisia, Zimbabwe; Brazil; Peoples Republic of China, Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan; France, Germany, Great Britain, Norway, Russia; Spain, Sweden, Switzerland.
Administrative Positions ‑ SUNY/Buffalo
Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs, 1976‑80
Acting Vice President for Academic Affairs, summer 1980
Acting Dean of the Colleges, 1978-9
Dean, Division of Undergraduate Studies, 1967-70
Co‑Director, annual Faculty Development Workshop, l984-91
Co‑Director, Program for Tenured Faculty, 1987-9
Major University Activities and Committees ‑ SUNY/Buffalo (selected)
Faculty Senate: Chairman, 1985‑7, 1995-7; Member, 2004-8; Chairman, Budget Priorities Committee, 1986‑93, member, 2007-2012 and Chair 2009-2012; member; Executive Committee, 1972-4, 1975-6, 1983‑5, 1987‑93, 1994-5, 1997-8; Governance Committee, 2005-; Chairman, Academic Planning Committee, 1997-2000; Chairman, Committee on Public Service, 1994-6; Chairman, Nominating Committee, 1972-4, 1975-7; Chairman, Committee on Student Affairs, 1971-2; Chairman, Special Committee on Academic Integrity, 1971; Chairman, Committee on Teaching Effectiveness, 1983-5.
Member, Campaign Advisory Group, 2008- (one of three faculty members on 15-person group; appointed by President Simpson to improve fund-raising efforts for UB as a whole)
Member, search committee for Director of Asian Studies, College of Arts and Sciences, 2006-7
Member, UB committee Institutional Mission, Goals and Objectives, Middle States Accreditation, 2001-3
Chairman, President's Review Board on Appointments, Promotions and Tenure, 1989-92; member, 1973-6, 1983-6
Co-Chairman, Committee on University Sesquicentennial, 1994-7
Chairman, Task Force on Budget and Finance, Middle States evaluation, 1991-2
Co-Chairman, Presidential Installation Committee, 1991-2
Baldy Center on Law and Social Policy: member of Advisory Committee, Gilbert Moore Fellowships Committee and Working Groups Committee, 2007-
Chairman, Council on International Studies and World Affairs, 1998-2000; member, 1966‑72, 1975‑80, 2001-present; Task Force on International Programs, 1981‑83
Chairman, Curriculum Committee, Undergraduate College, 1990-2
Chairman, World Civilization Committee, 1994-2000, 2002-
Chairman, ad hoc Bylaws Committee for the College of Arts and Sciences, 1998-99
Chairman, Screening Committee for Dean of Engineering, 1977
Chairman, Screening Committee for Dean of the Colleges, 1979
Chairman, Search Committee for Dean of Education, 1981
Chairman, Search Committee for Executive Director of Alumni Affairs, 1987
Committee on Honorary Degrees, 1988‑91, 1994-2000.
Chairman, University Committee on Faculty Staff Handbook, 1988; member, 1996-9
Senior Member, Undergraduate College, 1986‑93
Capital Campaign Planning Committee, 1996-2000.
Member, Council on International Studies and Programs, 1970-present; member, Faculty Internationalization Fund Selection Committee
President, Omicron Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, 1971‑93
Delegate Assembly, United University Professions (UUP), 1989-93; member, state-wide Re-Imagine UUP Committee ("Re-Up Committee"), 1992-93.
Chairman, Committee on African Studies, 1966-9, 1972-5, 1978-9
Master, Rachel Carson College, 1975-7 (now incorporated into the Interdisciplinary Degree Programs as the environmental studies track).
Faculty adviser to the College Young Democrats, 2005-; University at Buffalo branch of the Student Alliance of the United Nations Association of the United States of America, 2006-; and Phi Delta Alpha (pre-law group)
Major University Activities - SUNY-wide:
University-wide Advisory Council on Distinguished Service Professorships, 2009- [one of eight members]
University Faculty Senate, 1989-92, 1992-5, 1996-8; University Faculty Senate Executive Committee, 1989-90, 1991-2
University-wide Committee on Honorary Degrees, 1989-92, 1992-5, 1995-2000
Review Board for Human Rights, Levin Institute (an autonomous unit of SUNY based in New York City), 2008-
Major Activities – College of Arts and Sciences:
Policy Committee, at-large member, 2002-05; Steering Committee, 2004-05
Editorial and Editorial Advisory Activities:
Editor, Armed Forces & Society (quarterly journal of the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society), 1988‑92; Board of Editors, 1992-present; associate editor, 1980-8
Editor, subject area "Armed Forces and Society," International Military and Defense Encyclopedia (published in 1993 by Pergamon‑Brassey's; responsible for preparation of approximately 20 entries [90,000 words])
Advisory Board, World History since 1500 (Dushkin Publishers), 1997-2005.
Board of Editors, African Studies Review, 1974-81.
Editorial Advisory Board, Encyclopedia Americana, 1992-2003
Editorial review board, Human Rights Quarterly, 1993-present
Editorial Board of Advisors, Buffalo Human Rights Law Review, 1997-present
Chairman, 1980‑3; Director of Graduate Studies, 1973‑75, Acting Director of Graduate Studies, spring 2007; Graduate Committee, 1972‑75, 1996-7; Undergraduate Committee, 1997-98, 2001-02, 2008-; Comparative Politics Field Committee 2002-03, 2006-; Director of Graduate Admissions and Recruitment, 1973; Director of Graduate Studies spring 2007; Chairman, Committee on Review of the Graduate Program, 1970‑71; Admissions Committee for graduate students, 1965‑67; Coordinator, Undergraduate Honors Program, 1966‑68; Advisor, Politics Club, 1966‑67, 1983‑5; Department historian, 2007-.
Supervision of Ph.D. Dissertations: (See separate list)
Since 1969, I have participated in nearly 100 doctoral dissertation committees, chairing over 30 of them, and serving as outside reader (both at SUNY/Buffalo and at other universities) for others.
National and International Public Service and Other Activities:
Advisory Committee, African Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies, Banjul, Gambia, 1993-2005
Advisory Committee, Africa Division of Human Rights Watch), 1989-2009
US Army Command and General Staff College Academic Advisory Committee for graduate programs, Fort Leavenworth Kansas, 1999-2004
Consultant: USAID (participant in programs in Burundi and Benin, focused on enhancing democratization in Africa, with particular attention to armed forces); National Academy of Sciences (panel on issues in democratization); Ford Foundation Program on Human Rights; Commission to Study the Organization of Peace; Asia Foundation; others.
Evaluator of grant proposals: National Endowment for the Humanities, National Science Foundation, US Institute of Peace, Fulbright program, and others.
Executive Board, Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society, 1987-9; Executive Board, 1974-8; Chairman, regional meeting, 1974
Book manuscript evaluator: Princeton University Press, Pearson/Prentice-Hall, Houghton Mifflin, SUNY Press, University of Pennsylvania Press, University of Rochester Press, University of Nebraska Press, Pennsylvania State University Press, Kumarian Press, and others.
Article manuscript evaluator, Armed Forces & Society, African Studies Review, Journal of Developing Areas, Journal of Modern African Studies, and others
Promotion evaluator: University of Virginia, Johns Hopkins, University of California (Riverside), University of Southern California, University of Vermont, Dartmouth College, University of Southern Illinois, University of Zambia, and others.
Fellowship evaluator, Fulbright Commission (Council on International Educational Services)
Chairman, UNESCO Evaluation Commission, Alan Ikoku College of Education, Owerri, Nigeria, January 1977.
Assembly for University Goals and Governance, Policy Council on Access, Scale and Quality, 1969-70.
Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching, 1974
Danforth Foundation Associate, 1973-9
Selection for “Notable Contribution” to human rights scholarship by US Human Rights Network for book Economic Rights in Canada and the United States, April 2008
First ever recipient, TIAA-CREF/SUNY Research Foundation Lifetime Achievement Award, 2006
Distinguished alumnus of the year, Harvard/Radcliffe Club of Western New York, May 10, 2006
Lisa Hertel Award for outstanding professor, Department of Political Science, 1997, 2005 and 2009 [This award is given by the Undergraduate Student Association of the Department]
Award for Outstanding Contributions to International Education at the University of Buffalo, 2005, given by the Council on International Studies and Programs
Diversity Committee’s 2002 Circle of Distinction Award, given by the University Committee for the Promotion of Respect for Diversity
Milton Plesur award for teaching excellence, given by the Student Association, 1999
Honorary Member, Golden Key, 1998
“Outstanding Professor of the Year” award given by undergraduate students in Political Science, 1997
Honorary member, Phi Eta Sigma (freshman honors society), 1997
Distinguished Faculty Award, University Libraries, 1992 (first recipient)
Didaskalos (“teacher”) Award for outstanding contributions, Campus Ministries, 1985
Academic awards for Biology, French, Latin, and general scholarly excellence; Belmont Hill School, Belmont Massachusetts; also Headmaster’s award for outstanding graduating senior
Buffalo‑Area Public Service and Other Activities:
President, Buffalo Council on World Affairs, 1997-9 (including presiding over the organization’s 50th anniversary, helping take initial steps toward creating Buffalo-Niagara World Connect and successfully establishing its endowment fund); first vice-president, 1999-2000
Given the first-ever Claude E. Welch, Jr. award for outstanding voluntarism on behalf of the Buffalo Council on World Affairs (now Buffalo-Niagara WorldConnect), 2000.
Operabuffs of Western New York, volunteer assistant program editor
Board of Directors, Harvard Club of Western New York, 1998-2001
Ruling Elder, Westminster Presbyterian Church, 1984-9, 1997-2000; Chairman, Management Group, 1985-6; Chair, Adult Program Committee, 1986-9, 1997-9; Chairman, Investment Policy Advisory Committee, 1988-9
Participant, “One America: Conversations that Bring Us Together,” sponsored by the White House Initiative on Race, 1999
Editor, Pedal Power and member, Executive Committee, BIKE-WNY (Bicyclists Intent on Kinder Environments of Western New York, Inc.), 1990-4
Bicycle and Pedestrian Subcommittee, Greater Buffalo-Niagara Regional Transportation Council, 1998 -
Reporter on Religion and Ethics, WBEN-TV (volunteer work for Buffalo Council of Churches), 1972
Board of Directors, Amherst Community Church, 1970-72; Board of Trustees, 1975‑76; Chairman, Music Committee, 1980-82
Vice President, CAUSE (Coalition for Action, Unity and Social Equality), 1970-71
Secretary, Buffalo-area branch of American Civil Liberties Union, 1972-74
Board of Directors, African‑American Cultural Center of Buffalo, 1967-74
Lecturer, in‑service courses given for secondary school teachers in Williamsville, Niagara Falls, Hamburg, Lockport, Cheektowaga, and Buffalo
National champion, "Jeopardy!" (syndicated television quiz show), February 4-5, 1987
Research in Progress:
Impacts of non-governmental organizations, notably on human rights
Democratization following authoritarian rule
Professional and Honorary Associations:
African Studies Association
Inter‑University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society
Phi Beta Kappa
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